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What was Eduard Piotrowski's contribution to the forensic sciences?
First detailed study of bloodspatter evidence in Poland
List several factors that can affect the final shape of a bloodstain formed when a falling blood droplet strikes a surface at a 90 degress angle of impact.
Texture of surface, size/volume of blood, height fallen, force/velocity
Describe the general relationship between the impact angle and the final bloodstain shape.
More oblique impact angle, more elongated bloodstain
Know how to calculate impact angle from a crime scene bloodstain.
Arcsine of theta = width / length
Know which feature of a bloodstain is used to determine direction of impact.
Explain how one can determine the point(s) of convergence from a set of crime scene bloodstains.
Find the angles of impact; reconstruct direction; area with most dense intersections is the point of convergence
Describe the visual features of low, medium and high velocity bloodstain patterns and the activities that produce them.
- Low velocity
- - more than or equal to 4mm; gravity
- Medium velocity
- - between 1 and 3mm; physical contact
- High velocity
- - less than 1mm; backspatter and forward spatter possible; firearms
Name and describe the various types of bloodstains that can be found at a crime scene and the actions that can produce them.
- - trailing
- - clean object contacting bloody surface
- - bloody object contacting clean surface
- Cast off
- - flinging/swinging; bidirectionality; linear
- Arterial spurt
- - wavelike; large volume of blood
- - victim stationary
- - blood dripping into blood
- - outline of object