Trait Aspects of Personality

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Trait Aspects of Personality
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2012-05-07 16:34:40
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Chapter 8
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  1. Use of a limited set of adjectives or adjective dimensions to describe and scale individuals.
    Trait approach
  2. For a trait approach to succeed, it should use...
    A relatively small number of traits to account for a person's consistencies.
  3. Where did the first systematic approach to analyzing traits arise?
    Ancient Greece.
  4. This person set in motion an influential stream of work on traits when he employed the terms extroversion and introversion in a theory of personality.
    Carl Jung
  5. A widely used instrument that attempts to measure introversion and extroversion and several other subclassifications as defined by Carl Jung.
    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  6. Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is more prone to realism or imagination.
    Sensation-Intuition Scale
  7. Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is logical and objective or personal and subjective.
    Thinking-Feeling Scale
  8. Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is oriented toward evaluating or perceiving things.
    Judgment-Perception Scale
  9. Some of the major steps towards using statistical approaches to try to simplify and objectify the structure of personality were made by...
    R.B. Cattell
  10. This Cattell-used technique reduced many different traits to 16 different trait clusters.
    Factor analysis
  11. What three types of data did Cattell use?
    Q, T, and L-Data
  12. The term used by R.B. Cattell to describe data gathered from self-reports and questionnaires.
    Q-data
  13. The term used by R.B. Cattell to describe data from placing a person in a controlled test situation and noting or rating responses.
    T-data
  14. Term used by Cattell to describe data gathered about a person's life from school records or similar sources.
    L-data
  15. According to Gordon Allport, a generalized neuropsychic structure or core tendency that underlies behavior across time and situations.
    Trait
  16. This person studies American against Negroes and Jews ata time when it was not fashionable to do so.
    Allport
  17. The term used by Allport to describe organizing structures that people in a population share.
    Common Traits
  18. A term used by Allport to describe the idea that in adulthood many motives and tendencies become independent of their origins in childhood and that finding out where such tendencies originated is, therefore, not important.
    Functionally Autonomous
  19. Allport's term for the core of personality that defines who one is; Allport believed that this has a biological counterpart.
    Proprium
  20. Allport's concept that many behaviors of individuals are similar in their meaning because the individuals tend to view many situations and stimuli the same way.
    Functionally Equivalent
  21. Methods that take into account each person's uniqueness, through things such as Q-sorts and diaries.
    Idiographic methods
  22. Allport's term for describing personal dispositions in terms of a person's unique goals, motives or styles.
    Nuclear Quality
  23. Term used by Allport to describe a trait that is peculiar to an individual.
    Personal disposition
  24. Term used by Allport to describe personal dispositions that exert an overwhelming influence on behavior.
    Cardinal Dispositions
  25. Term used by Allport to describe the several personal dispositions around which personality is organized.
    Central dispositions
  26. What are the big five trait approaches to personality?
    Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
  27. The personality dimension that includes enthusiasm, dominance, and sociability; people low onthis dimension are considered introverted.
    Extroversion
  28. The personality dimension that includes firendliness, cooperation, and warmth; people low in this dimension are cold, quarrelsome, and unkind.
    Agreeableness
  29. The personality dimension that includes dependability, cautiousness, organization, and responsibility; people low in this dimension are impulsive, careless, disorderly, and undependable.
    Conscientiousness
  30. The personality dimension that includes nervousness, tension, and anxiety; people low in this dimension are emotionally stable, calm, and contented.
    Neuroticism
  31. Personality dimension that includes imagination, wit, originality, and creativity; people low on this dimension are shallow, plain, and simple.
    Openness
  32. How was the Big Five developed?
    Extensive factor analysis, and emerged from data, not theories.
  33. What can the big five predict?
    Useful and important life outcomes.
  34. Does the big five state that there are only five traits?
    No, each trait has narrower traits within them.
  35. Eysenck said that triats derived from three underlying biological systems. What are they?
    Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism
  36. Within the Big Five approach, the component characteristics that underlie each of the Big Five factors.
    Facet
  37. One of Eysenck's biologically-oriented dimensions; it includes a tendency toward psychopathology, involving impulsivity and cruelty, tough-mindedness and shrewdness.
    Psychoticism
  38. The importance of consensus in determining the
    reality of personality traits
    personality judgments
  39. Observation and judgment of someone with whom one has never interacted.
    Zero Acquaintance

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