Dmi 54 Final

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Dmi 54 Final
2012-05-07 20:10:21
infarction ischemia cardiac cath pulmonary embolism

Advanced radiologic procedures final
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  1. infarction
    tissue death caused by an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply
  2. ischemia
    restriction in blood supplies of tissues
  3. diastole
    is the period of time when the heart refills with blood after systole
  4. mitral stenosis
    narrowing of the mitral valve, which separates the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart
  5. arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries
  6. arterial anastomosis
    the joining of two arteries
  7. myocardium
    the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle.
  8. atheroma
    A fatty deposit in the inner lining (intima) of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis.
  9. digitalis
    Digitalis is used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF) and heart rhythm problems (atrial arrhythmias). Digitalis can increase blood flow throughout your body and reduce swelling in your hands and ankles.
  10. patent ductus arteriosus
    • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close.
    • The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby's lungs before birth. Soon after the infant is born and the lungs fill with air, the ductus arteriosus is no longer needed. It usually closes in a couple of days after birth.
  11. nitroglycerin
    Nitroglycerin spray and tablets are used to treat episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease
  12. angina pectoris
    chest pain due to ischemia
  13. mitral valve prolapse
    a heart problem in which the valve that separates the upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart does not close properly
  14. septal defects
    • also known as a "hole in the heart"
    • congenital defect
    • can be between the atria or ventricles
  15. systole
    The time period when the heart is contracting
  16. aneurysm
    an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel
  17. what are the two divisions of diagnostic procedures of cardiac catherization? which on of the two can be performed for diagnostic as well as for therapeutic reasons?
    • coronary arteriography- therapy and diagnostic
    • angiocardiography
  18. what are the 6 factors that increase the risk of coronary artery disease?
    • obesity
    • smoking
    • hypertension
    • heredity
    • diabetes
    • high blood cholesterol level
  19. what is the septa?
    divides the heart into right and left halves
  20. the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle is controlled by which valve?
    tricuspid valve
  21. the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle is controlled by which valve?
    bicuspid or mitral valve
  22. the systemic circulation start and end where?
    start from the left ventricle to the right atrium
  23. the pulmonary circulation start where?
    start at the right ventricle to the left atrium
  24. which arteries are the first branches of the ascending aorta and provide the blood supply to the myocardial tissues?
    coronary arteries
  25. what are some indications for cardiac catherization?
    • angina
    • highly positive exercise tolerance test
    • evaluation before major surgery
    • silent ischemia
    • atypical chest pain
    • coronary spasm
    • recurrent symptoms in patients with coronary artery bypass
  26. what are some contraindications for cardiac catherization?
    • high sensitivity to contrast
    • hepatic failure/renal failure
    • congestive heart failure
    • severe hypertension
    • arrhythmias, ventricular irritability
    • infection (heart)
    • anemia
    • medication intoxication like digitalis
    • cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
  27. what are some complications of cardiac catherization?
    • myocardial infarction
    • stroke or CVA
    • vascular damage
    • cardiac perforation
    • infection
    • hemorrhage or hematoma
    • in rare cases, death
  28. what is pulmonary angiography?
    study of the blood circulation leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and returning to the left atrium of the heart
  29. how much higher is the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery?
    1 cm higher
  30. what are the two main branches of the left pulmonary artery and what do they feed?
    • ascending and descending
    • feed the upper and lower lobes respectively
  31. the right pulmonary artery divides into what and what do they feed?
    • divides into an ascending branch which feeds the right upper lobe
    • divides into descending branches which feed the right middle and right lower lobes
  32. what are some indications for a pulmonary angiography?
    • vascular anomalies
    • AVM
    • to demonstrate reverse shunting across patent ductus arteriosus
    • P.E.
    • aortic dissection
    • thoracic aneurysms can mimic pulmonary emboli
  33. what are some contraindications for a pulmonary angiography?
    • recent myocardial infarction
    • pulmonary hypertension (arterial pressure above 60 mmgh)
    • increased sensitivity to contrast
  34. what are the preprocedural care for a pulmonary angiography?
    • in depth clinical evaluation
    • blood gas determination
    • electrocardiogram
    • chest x-ray
    • perfusion and inhalation lung scan
  35. what is the approach for a pulmonary angiography?
    femoral vein is a common route
  36. what types of catheters that are used for a pulmonary angiography?
    • pigtail
    • closed-end, multi-side hole to prevent recoil
    • introducer cheath
  37. what are some complications during a pulmonary angiography?
    • PVC's due to placement of the catheter into the heart
    • perforation of the heart
    • arrhythmia's
    • twisted catheter in the heart
    • severe bradycardia
    • dislodgement of a blood clot
    • air emboli, thrombi in the catheter
  38. what are some findings during a pulmonary angiography?
    • embolization
    • pulmonary stenosis
    • vascular changes, coarctation of the pulmonary artery
    • patent ductus arteriosus
    • tumors
    • filling defect
    • complete occlusion of vessel
  39. what type of pain do women and men feel during an angina pectoralis?
    • men - crushing pain
    • women - just a little
  40. where do the coronary arteries come out off of the heart?
    aortic sinus
  41. which matters more about an LDL cholesterol, size or quantity?
  42. where is the semi-lunar valve located?
    between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
  43. which veins of the lower extremities can potentionally produce the biggest clots?
    deep pelvic veins
  44. what counteracts heparin?
  45. what counteracts coumadin?
    vitamin k
  46. describe seldinger's technique step by step
    • needle puntures both walls of vessels
    • remove interpiece & withdraw needle until blood flows back
    • guide wire inserted
    • needle removed
    • catheter placed over guidewire
    • catheter inserted into vessel
    • guide wire removed