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tissue death caused by an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply
restriction in blood supplies of tissues
is the period of time when the heart refills with blood after systole
narrowing of the mitral valve, which separates the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart
hardening of the arteries
the joining of two arteries
the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle.
A fatty deposit in the inner lining (intima) of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis.
Digitalis is used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF) and heart rhythm problems (atrial arrhythmias). Digitalis can increase blood flow throughout your body and reduce swelling in your hands and ankles.
patent ductus arteriosus
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close.
- The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby's lungs before birth. Soon after the infant is born and the lungs fill with air, the ductus arteriosus is no longer needed. It usually closes in a couple of days after birth.
Nitroglycerin spray and tablets are used to treat episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease
chest pain due to ischemia
mitral valve prolapse
a heart problem in which the valve that separates the upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart does not close properly
- also known as a "hole in the heart"
- congenital defect
- can be between the atria or ventricles
The time period when the heart is contracting
an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel
what are the two divisions of diagnostic procedures of cardiac catherization? which on of the two can be performed for diagnostic as well as for therapeutic reasons?
- coronary arteriography- therapy and diagnostic
what are the 6 factors that increase the risk of coronary artery disease?
- high blood cholesterol level
what is the septa?
divides the heart into right and left halves
the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle is controlled by which valve?
the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle is controlled by which valve?
bicuspid or mitral valve
the systemic circulation start and end where?
start from the left ventricle to the right atrium
the pulmonary circulation start where?
start at the right ventricle to the left atrium
which arteries are the first branches of the ascending aorta and provide the blood supply to the myocardial tissues?
what are some indications for cardiac catherization?
- highly positive exercise tolerance test
- evaluation before major surgery
- silent ischemia
- atypical chest pain
- coronary spasm
- recurrent symptoms in patients with coronary artery bypass
what are some contraindications for cardiac catherization?
- high sensitivity to contrast
- hepatic failure/renal failure
- congestive heart failure
- severe hypertension
- arrhythmias, ventricular irritability
- infection (heart)
- medication intoxication like digitalis
- cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
what are some complications of cardiac catherization?
- myocardial infarction
- stroke or CVA
- vascular damage
- cardiac perforation
- hemorrhage or hematoma
- in rare cases, death
what is pulmonary angiography?
study of the blood circulation leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and returning to the left atrium of the heart
how much higher is the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery?
1 cm higher
what are the two main branches of the left pulmonary artery and what do they feed?
- ascending and descending
- feed the upper and lower lobes respectively
the right pulmonary artery divides into what and what do they feed?
- divides into an ascending branch which feeds the right upper lobe
- divides into descending branches which feed the right middle and right lower lobes
what are some indications for a pulmonary angiography?
- vascular anomalies
- to demonstrate reverse shunting across patent ductus arteriosus
- aortic dissection
- thoracic aneurysms can mimic pulmonary emboli
what are some contraindications for a pulmonary angiography?
- recent myocardial infarction
- pulmonary hypertension (arterial pressure above 60 mmgh)
- increased sensitivity to contrast
what are the preprocedural care for a pulmonary angiography?
- in depth clinical evaluation
- blood gas determination
- chest x-ray
- perfusion and inhalation lung scan
what is the approach for a pulmonary angiography?
femoral vein is a common route
what types of catheters that are used for a pulmonary angiography?
- closed-end, multi-side hole to prevent recoil
- introducer cheath
what are some complications during a pulmonary angiography?
- PVC's due to placement of the catheter into the heart
- perforation of the heart
- twisted catheter in the heart
- severe bradycardia
- dislodgement of a blood clot
- air emboli, thrombi in the catheter
what are some findings during a pulmonary angiography?
- pulmonary stenosis
- vascular changes, coarctation of the pulmonary artery
- patent ductus arteriosus
- filling defect
- complete occlusion of vessel
what type of pain do women and men feel during an angina pectoralis?
- men - crushing pain
- women - just a little
where do the coronary arteries come out off of the heart?
which matters more about an LDL cholesterol, size or quantity?
where is the semi-lunar valve located?
between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
which veins of the lower extremities can potentionally produce the biggest clots?
deep pelvic veins
what counteracts heparin?
what counteracts coumadin?
describe seldinger's technique step by step
- needle puntures both walls of vessels
- remove interpiece & withdraw needle until blood flows back
- guide wire inserted
- needle removed
- catheter placed over guidewire
- catheter inserted into vessel
- guide wire removed