Geology Fall2012

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Geology Fall2012
2012-05-07 20:54:35

Geology final
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  1. Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called
    terrigenous sediment
  2. In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a....
  3. The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed
    long shore current
  4. Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis force?
    both wind speeds and latitude
  5. On a weather map, _______ fronts are shown by a line with triangular pointson one side...
  6. The Koppen Climate classificaton recognizes ________ principal climate group
  7. The apparent westward drift of the planest compared to the background stars is called...
    retrograde motion
  8. Earth is closest to the Sun in January
  9. Which of the following has the most inclined angle?
  10. A ______________ is a well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations
  11. A __________ is a limited statement regarding cause and effect in specific situations
  12. Common mistakes in applying the scientific method include....
    All of the above
  13. All of the following are possible steps of scientific invetigastion except for.....
    assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation/observation
  14. If the scientific method are carefully followed during an experimental investigation, then which statement would be true?
    Others should be able to reproduce the results
  15. In the scientific method of investigation, when I observe, I...
    Use one or more of the 5 senses to gather information
  16. Global warming is caused by
    The heat produced by burning fossil fuels
  17. Which of the following demonstrate that science and technology contribute to our daily lives?
    All of the above
  18. Which of the following are major issues and problems facing modern science?
    All of the above
  19. Which of these environmental problems would a geoscientist be most likely to address?
    The effect of oil and gas production on atmosphereic pollution
  20. Modern science cannot contribute to which of the following issues?
    Proving religion is unnecessary
  21. Which one of the following is not a part of the continental margin?
    Continental trench
  22. It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by....
    turbidity currents
  23. Which of the following is not true of deep ocen trenches?
    They are geologically very stable
  24. Seamounts....
    are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
  25. Submarine canyons found on the continental slope are believed to have been created by....
    None of these
  26. Which of the following would be most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?
    Deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
  27. Which one of the following would you NOT associate with tubidity currents?
    Formation of seamounts
  28. Which is associated with ocean ridges?
    All of the above
  29. Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of...........
    Hydrogenous sediment
  30. Gently sloping submerged surface estending from the shoreline is termed....
    Continental shelf
  31. The oceans cover approximately _______% of the earth's surface?
  32. The _______ Ocean is largest
  33. Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
  34. Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following is true?
    The Southern Hemisphere has much moer water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
  35. The west cost of South America and the east coast of N. American have very different continental margins...
  36. Continental rise lies at the bottom of the continental slope...
  37. Sand, salt and clays deposited on the ocean floor are described as terrigenous sediments
  38. The continental shelf lies at the bottom of the continental slope
  39. The proportoion of dissolved substances in seawater is expressed as 0/00 which is the same as
    parts per thousand
  40. The most abundant salt in seawater is
  41. A rapid change in temperature with depth in the ocean is called the.....
  42. Most marine animals live near the surface of the ocean because of _____________.
  43. Organisms such as algae and bacteria that drift with ocean currents are known as....
  44. The mass of all living organisms on Earth is called the
  45. Algae are called
  46. Animals capable of moving independently of ocean currents are called
  47. _______ organisms live in or on the oceam bottom?
  48. the upper part of the ocean into which sunlight penetrates is called the _______ zone
  49. The area where the land and ocean meet and overlap is called the ___________
    intertidal zone
  50. The amount of carbon fixed by organisms throught the synthesis of organic matter is called.....
    Primary productivity
  51. Productivity in temperate oceans is determined by
    all of these
  52. In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a _______ level
  53. Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is.....
    equal to one-half wavelength
  54. When waves reach shallow water, they are ofte bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is called....
  55. The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed....
    longshore current
  56. Whcih one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
    Sea arch
  57. Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are....
    All of the above
  58. A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a....
    none of these
  59. A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a....
  60. An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a....
    sea stack
  61. A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a....
  62. Because of the Coriolos effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ______________ of their path of motion in the N. Hemisphere
  63. Because of the Coriolos effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ______________ of their path of motion in the S. Hemisphere
  64. The daily tidal range is the greatest during _______ tide
  65. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from
    prevailing winds
  66. Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?
  67. The daily tidal range is least during ________ tide
  68. One of the discoveries which led to the modern view of the solar system was that the orbits of the planets are
  69. Galileo observed serveral features using the telescope but which did he not discover?
    The two moons of mars
  70. The first modern astronomer to propse a sun centered universe was
  71. This scientist was the first to use the telescope is astronomy
  72. Three lawes of plentary motion were discovered by
  73. In the greek model of the universe
    earth was in the cernter of the universe
  74. The true shape of the planetary orbits was discovered by
  75. This astronomer spent 20 years plotting the position of the planet Mars
  76. The astronomer is credited with "opening the door" to the era of modern astronomy
  77. Which of these men formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation?
    Sir Isaac Newton
  78. Earth centered systems of the universe that was accepted for nearly 17 centuries was presented the Almagest which was written by...
  79. The first successful attempt to establish the size of Earth is credited to
  80. A very slow motion of Earth's axis that requires 26,000 years to complete is called
  81. Apprent path of the Sun upon the celestial sphere is called the
  82. Period of time required for the moon to complete a cycle of phases is called the
  83. The period of time required for the Moon to complete a revolution is called the ___________ month
  84. The ancient Greeks proposed an Earth-centered view of the universe
  85. The planets maintain circular orbits around the Sun
  86. Earth is closest to the Sun in Jaunary
  87. Galileo believed in a sun-centered view of the universe
  88. The planets maintain elliptical orbits around the Sun
  89. Sir Isaac Newton was convicted of heresy
  90. The same side of the moon is always visible from Earth
  91. The cycle of phases of the Moon is the basis for our month
  92. Which of the following statements concerning ring satellites of the planet is true?
    Consist of concentrations of particles generally smaller than 10 meters in diameter
  93. Which pair of solar system bodies come closest to approximating a "double planet"?
    Pluto & Charon
  94. The __________ explains how our solar system probaly formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles
    Nebular hypothesis
  95. The loose surface material on the Moon is similar to that on Mars is composition and weathering
  96. Compared to Earth's atmosphere Mars has a surface pressure that is
    0.1 times those on Earth; major gases are water vapor
  97. Which one of the following statements is believed to be true of comets?
    They have highly elliptical orbits around the Sun
  98. ___________ refers to the bright head of a comet
  99. ___________ has the great, dark spot on its surface
  100. Which one of the following is not found on Mars?
    H20 rich atmosphere
  101. How did the lunar maria originate?
    Huge impact basins that were nearly filled with basaltic lava flows
  102. The surface features of ________ are known only through satellite radar mapping
  103. ___________ a moon orbiting Jupiter
  104. ____________ has a hot, turbulent atmosphere
  105. Which one of the following lunar features is the youngest?
    Brightly rayed craters
  106. Largest known volcano in the solar system is
    Mons Olympus on Mars
  107. ________ are small extraterestrial particales that glow brightly
  108. The belt of the asteroids is located between
    Jupiter and Mars
  109. Which of these lunar deatures is the oldest?
    Lunar highlands
  110. The high surface temperatures of this planet greenhouse effect
  111. The smallest true planet in the solar system is
  112. The dark tail of a comet is called a coma
  113. The very large, lava covered areas of the Moon are called Maria
  114. The 4 largest moons of Jupiter are known as the Galilean moons
  115. The atmosphere of Mars is less dense than earth's
  116. Large impact craters and large features have been imaged on the surface of Venus
  117. Which of the following is not considered a form of electromagnetic radiation?
  118. Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?
  119. The spectra of most stars are of this type
    Dark line (absorbtion) spectrum
  120. As the temperature of a radiating surface is increased
    Both A & C
  121. To determine whether a celestial body is approaching or receding from Earth
    the Doppler principle
  122. Lenses act like a prism to seperate the colors of the spectrum
    chromatic aberration
  123. The problems encountered with lenses caused this scientists to build reflecting telescopes
    Sir Isaac Newton
  124. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that radio telescopes have over optical telescopes?
    They have better resolution
  125. Nearly all large optical telescopes built today are
  126. The layer of the Sun that rediates most of the light that reaches Earth is called the
  127. The source of the Sun's energy is
    Nuclear fusion
  128. The sun produces energy by converting
    Hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei
  129. The layer of the solar atmosphere directly above the photosphere is referred to as the
  130. The most explosive events to occur on the Sun are
    Solar flares
  131. Blue stars are cooler than red stars
  132. When a source is moving away, its light appears redder then it actually is
  133. Telescopes with larger objectives can see farther into space than those with smaller
  134. Sunspots appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding solar surface
  135. Radiotelescops are generally much larger in size than are optical telescopes
  136. Radiotelescopes are able to detect very short wave radiation emitted by celestial objects
  137. The mechanism that produces energy on the Sun involved the conversion of matter to energy
  138. Astronomers currently estimate the internal temperature of the sun at 1500 C
  139. The Sun's energy results from the conversion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclie
  140. The sun is considered an "average star"
  141. Radio telescopes have an advantage over optical telescopes in that they can be used turing daylight hours
  142. One of the most common units used to express stellar distance
    Light year
  143. The distance to stars can be determined from
    stellar parallax
  144. Which one of the objects listed below has the largest size?
  145. Our galaxy is called the
    Milky Way Galaxy
  146. Which color stars have the highest surface temp?
  147. Which color has the coolest surface temp?
  148. Which main sequence stars are the most massive?
  149. Possibly the most caraclusmic event to occur in nature is
  150. The most dense stars known to exist are
    Black holes
  151. These stars are produced during a supernova event
    Black hole
  152. The Sun belongs to this class of stars
    Main-sequence star
  153. The point in stellar evolution when a star had used up all its fuel and its radiating away its remaining thermal energy
    white dwarf
  154. This property of a star can be termined from its color
    Surface temperature
  155. Based on observed red shifts astronomers conclude that
    The universe is expanding
  156. When a main-sequence star has exhausted its next becomes a
    red giant
  157. Stars with a surface temp of 3000 K appear red in color
  158. The larger the magnitude number the brighter it will be
  159. Cool stars evolve much more quickly than do hot stars
  160. The final stage in the evolution of a star like out Sun is a neutron star
  161. More than 50% of the stars in the universe occur in pairs or multiples
  162. The red shift refers to the tendency of stars to cool and become red in color
  163. The hottest main sequence stars are also the most massive
  164. Most galaxies in the universe are moving away from us
  165. The least massive main-sequence stars are blue in color
  166. Air may best be described as __________.
  167. Which one of the following is the most
    abundant gas in the atmosphere?
  168. On the AVERAGE, for every 1000 feet increase in
    altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature _____.
    drops 5.5 degree F
  169. The tropopause is the boundary between
    the troposphere and stratosphere
  170. The triatomic form of oxygen (O3)
    is known as __________.
  171. Ozone is concentrated in the __________
  172. The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the
  173. Practically all clouds and storms occur in
    this layer of the atmosphere.
  174. The wavelengths of radiation emitted by
    Earth are __________.
    longer than those emitted by the Sun
  175. The longest wavelengths on the
    electromagnetic spectrum are __________.
  176. The storage of heat in the lower layer of
    the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the _________.
    greenhouse effect
  177. At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead
    at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
  178. The spring equinox in the Northern
    Hemisphere occurs on __________.
    March 21
  179. The 90˚ angle solar rays are striking the
    Tropic of Capricorn on __________.
    December 21
  180. The summer solstice in the Northern
    Hemisphere occurs on this date.
    June 21
  181. Which are mechanisms of heat transfer?
    All of these
  182. If the maximum temperature for a particular
    day is 26˚C and the minimum temperature is 14˚C, the daily mean would be
    20 C
  183. The annual temperature range at most
    latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for this is that __________.
    there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere
  184. The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed ____________.
  185. The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called
  186. A dark gray cloud that blankets the sky and often generates
    precipitation is called __________.
  187. This cloud may develop an "anvil head."
  188. Tornadoes can be associated with this cloud type.
  189. Hail is most commonly associated with __________.
  190. We are likely to have our highest relative humidity __________.
    about sunrise
  191. When using a psychrometer and the two temperatures read nearly the same, you can conclude that __________
    the air has a high relative humidity
  192. The dew point is the temperature at which __________.
    water vapor condenses to a liquid
  193. The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is __________.
    cooling by expansion of air
  194. The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called __________.
  195. The term __________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state.
  196. The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called __________.
  197. This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water.
  198. Standard sea level pressure in millibars is
    1013 mb
  199. Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is __________.
    29.92 inches
  200. The mercurial barometer was invented by __________.
  201. The force that generates wind is __________.
    pressure gradient force
  202. Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called __________.
  203. Closely spaced isobars often indicate __________.
    high winds
  204. In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds
    associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow __________.
    counterclockwise and toward the center
  205. High air pressure systems are usually associated with
    all of these
  206. Which of the following should have the steepest pressure gradient?
  207. Tornadoes most often move TOWARDS what direction?
  208. Typhoon is another name for a __________.
  209. When an active cold front overtakes a warm front __________.
    occluded front forms
  210. A wind shift from south or southwest to northwest is commonly associated with the passage of a _______ front.