Card Set Information
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called
In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a....
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed
long shore current
Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis force?
both wind speeds and latitude
On a weather map, _______ fronts are shown by a line with triangular pointson one side...
The Koppen Climate classificaton recognizes ________ principal climate group
The apparent westward drift of the planest compared to the background stars is called...
Earth is closest to the Sun in January
Which of the following has the most inclined angle?
A ______________ is a well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations
A __________ is a limited statement regarding cause and effect in specific situations
Common mistakes in applying the scientific method include....
All of the above
All of the following are possible steps of scientific invetigastion except for.....
assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation/observation
If the scientific method are carefully followed during an experimental investigation, then which statement would be true?
Others should be able to reproduce the results
In the scientific method of investigation, when I observe, I...
Use one or more of the 5 senses to gather information
Global warming is caused by
The heat produced by burning fossil fuels
Which of the following demonstrate that science and technology contribute to our daily lives?
All of the above
Which of the following are major issues and problems facing modern science?
All of the above
Which of these environmental problems would a geoscientist be most likely to address?
The effect of oil and gas production on atmosphereic pollution
Modern science cannot contribute to which of the following issues?
Proving religion is unnecessary
Which one of the following is not a part of the continental margin?
It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by....
Which of the following is not true of deep ocen trenches?
They are geologically very stable
are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
Submarine canyons found on the continental slope are believed to have been created by....
None of these
Which of the following would be most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?
Deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
Which one of the following would you NOT associate with tubidity currents?
Formation of seamounts
Which is associated with ocean ridges?
All of the above
Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of...........
Gently sloping submerged surface estending from the shoreline is termed....
The oceans cover approximately _______% of the earth's surface?
The _______ Ocean is largest
Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following is true?
The Southern Hemisphere has much moer water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
The west cost of South America and the east coast of N. American have very different continental margins...
Continental rise lies at the bottom of the continental slope...
Sand, salt and clays deposited on the ocean floor are described as terrigenous sediments
The continental shelf lies at the bottom of the continental slope
The proportoion of dissolved substances in seawater is expressed as 0/00 which is the same as
parts per thousand
The most abundant salt in seawater is
A rapid change in temperature with depth in the ocean is called the.....
Most marine animals live near the surface of the ocean because of _____________.
Organisms such as algae and bacteria that drift with ocean currents are known as....
The mass of all living organisms on Earth is called the
Algae are called
Animals capable of moving independently of ocean currents are called
_______ organisms live in or on the oceam bottom?
the upper part of the ocean into which sunlight penetrates is called the _______ zone
The area where the land and ocean meet and overlap is called the ___________
The amount of carbon fixed by organisms throught the synthesis of organic matter is called.....
Productivity in temperate oceans is determined by
all of these
In the food chain, each feeding stage is called a _______ level
Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is.....
equal to one-half wavelength
When waves reach shallow water, they are ofte bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is called....
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed....
Whcih one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are....
All of the above
A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a....
none of these
A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a....
An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a....
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a....
Because of the Coriolos effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ______________ of their path of motion in the N. Hemisphere
Because of the Coriolos effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ______________ of their path of motion in the S. Hemisphere
The daily tidal range is the greatest during _______ tide
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from
Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?
The daily tidal range is least during ________ tide
One of the discoveries which led to the modern view of the solar system was that the orbits of the planets are
Galileo observed serveral features using the telescope but which did he not discover?
The two moons of mars
The first modern astronomer to propse a sun centered universe was
This scientist was the first to use the telescope is astronomy
Three lawes of plentary motion were discovered by
In the greek model of the universe
earth was in the cernter of the universe
The true shape of the planetary orbits was discovered by
This astronomer spent 20 years plotting the position of the planet Mars
The astronomer is credited with "opening the door" to the era of modern astronomy
Which of these men formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation?
Sir Isaac Newton
Earth centered systems of the universe that was accepted for nearly 17 centuries was presented the Almagest which was written by...
The first successful attempt to establish the size of Earth is credited to
A very slow motion of Earth's axis that requires 26,000 years to complete is called
Apprent path of the Sun upon the celestial sphere is called the
Period of time required for the moon to complete a cycle of phases is called the
The period of time required for the Moon to complete a revolution is called the ___________ month
The ancient Greeks proposed an Earth-centered view of the universe
The planets maintain circular orbits around the Sun
Earth is closest to the Sun in Jaunary
Galileo believed in a sun-centered view of the universe
The planets maintain elliptical orbits around the Sun
Sir Isaac Newton was convicted of heresy
The same side of the moon is always visible from Earth
The cycle of phases of the Moon is the basis for our month
Which of the following statements concerning ring satellites of the planet is true?
Consist of concentrations of particles generally smaller than 10 meters in diameter
Which pair of solar system bodies come closest to approximating a "double planet"?
Pluto & Charon
The __________ explains how our solar system probaly formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles
The loose surface material on the Moon is similar to that on Mars is composition and weathering
Compared to Earth's atmosphere Mars has a surface pressure that is
0.1 times those on Earth; major gases are water vapor
Which one of the following statements is believed to be true of comets?
They have highly elliptical orbits around the Sun
___________ refers to the bright head of a comet
___________ has the great, dark spot on its surface
Which one of the following is not found on Mars?
H20 rich atmosphere
How did the lunar maria originate?
Huge impact basins that were nearly filled with basaltic lava flows
The surface features of ________ are known only through satellite radar mapping
___________ a moon orbiting Jupiter
____________ has a hot, turbulent atmosphere
Which one of the following lunar features is the youngest?
Brightly rayed craters
Largest known volcano in the solar system is
Mons Olympus on Mars
________ are small extraterestrial particales that glow brightly
The belt of the asteroids is located between
Jupiter and Mars
Which of these lunar deatures is the oldest?
The high surface temperatures of this planet greenhouse effect
The smallest true planet in the solar system is
The dark tail of a comet is called a coma
The very large, lava covered areas of the Moon are called Maria
The 4 largest moons of Jupiter are known as the Galilean moons
The atmosphere of Mars is less dense than earth's
Large impact craters and large features have been imaged on the surface of Venus
Which of the following is not considered a form of electromagnetic radiation?
Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?
The spectra of most stars are of this type
Dark line (absorbtion) spectrum
As the temperature of a radiating surface is increased
Both A & C
To determine whether a celestial body is approaching or receding from Earth
the Doppler principle
Lenses act like a prism to seperate the colors of the spectrum
The problems encountered with lenses caused this scientists to build reflecting telescopes
Sir Isaac Newton
Which of the following is NOT an advantage that radio telescopes have over optical telescopes?
They have better resolution
Nearly all large optical telescopes built today are
The layer of the Sun that rediates most of the light that reaches Earth is called the
The source of the Sun's energy is
The sun produces energy by converting
Hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei
The layer of the solar atmosphere directly above the photosphere is referred to as the
The most explosive events to occur on the Sun are
Blue stars are cooler than red stars
When a source is moving away, its light appears redder then it actually is
Telescopes with larger objectives can see farther into space than those with smaller
Sunspots appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding solar surface
Radiotelescops are generally much larger in size than are optical telescopes
Radiotelescopes are able to detect very short wave radiation emitted by celestial objects
The mechanism that produces energy on the Sun involved the conversion of matter to energy
Astronomers currently estimate the internal temperature of the sun at 1500 C
The Sun's energy results from the conversion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclie
The sun is considered an "average star"
Radio telescopes have an advantage over optical telescopes in that they can be used turing daylight hours
One of the most common units used to express stellar distance
The distance to stars can be determined from
Which one of the objects listed below has the largest size?
Our galaxy is called the
Milky Way Galaxy
Which color stars have the highest surface temp?
Which color has the coolest surface temp?
Which main sequence stars are the most massive?
Possibly the most caraclusmic event to occur in nature is
The most dense stars known to exist are
These stars are produced during a supernova event
The Sun belongs to this class of stars
The point in stellar evolution when a star had used up all its fuel and its radiating away its remaining thermal energy
This property of a star can be termined from its color
Based on observed red shifts astronomers conclude that
The universe is expanding
When a main-sequence star has exhausted its next becomes a
Stars with a surface temp of 3000 K appear red in color
The larger the magnitude number the brighter it will be
Cool stars evolve much more quickly than do hot stars
The final stage in the evolution of a star like out Sun is a neutron star
More than 50% of the stars in the universe occur in pairs or multiples
The red shift refers to the tendency of stars to cool and become red in color
The hottest main sequence stars are also the most massive
Most galaxies in the universe are moving away from us
The least massive main-sequence stars are blue in color
Air may best be described as __________.
Which one of the following is the most
abundant gas in the atmosphere?
On the AVERAGE, for every 1000 feet increase in
altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature _____.
drops 5.5 degree F
The tropopause is the boundary between
the troposphere and stratosphere
The triatomic form of oxygen (O3)
is known as __________.
Ozone is concentrated in the __________
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the
Practically all clouds and storms occur in
this layer of the atmosphere.
The wavelengths of radiation emitted by
Earth are __________.
longer than those emitted by the Sun
The longest wavelengths on the
electromagnetic spectrum are __________.
The storage of heat in the lower layer of
the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the _________.
At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead
at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
The spring equinox in the Northern
Hemisphere occurs on __________.
The 90˚ angle solar rays are striking the
Tropic of Capricorn on __________.
The summer solstice in the Northern
Hemisphere occurs on this date.
Which are mechanisms of heat transfer?
All of these
If the maximum temperature for a particular
day is 26˚C and the minimum temperature is 14˚C, the daily mean would be
The annual temperature range at most
latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for this is that __________.
there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere
The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed ____________.
The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called
A dark gray cloud that blankets the sky and often generates
precipitation is called __________.
This cloud may develop an "anvil head."
Tornadoes can be associated with this cloud type.
Hail is most commonly associated with __________.
We are likely to have our highest relative humidity __________.
When using a psychrometer and the two temperatures read nearly the same, you can conclude that __________
the air has a high relative humidity
The dew point is the temperature at which __________.
water vapor condenses to a liquid
The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is __________.
cooling by expansion of air
The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called __________.
The term __________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state.
The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called __________.
This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water.
Standard sea level pressure in millibars is
Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is __________.
The mercurial barometer was invented by __________.
The force that generates wind is __________.
pressure gradient force
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called __________.
Closely spaced isobars often indicate __________.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds
associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow __________.
counterclockwise and toward the center
High air pressure systems are usually associated with
all of these
Which of the following should have the steepest pressure gradient?
Tornadoes most often move TOWARDS what direction?
Typhoon is another name for a __________.
When an active cold front overtakes a warm front __________.
occluded front forms
A wind shift from south or southwest to northwest is commonly associated with the passage of a _______ front.