ECOLOGY FOR FINAL 2

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
152770
Filename:
ECOLOGY FOR FINAL 2
Updated:
2012-05-07 18:24:38
Tags:
bio
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Description:
ecology - on final
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  1. Predator prey interaction:
    • killing and eating of one organism by another.
    • stable- adaptations of prey and predator
    • -milkweek poisons= monarch butterflies eat milkweed becomes poisonous
    • vicerory butterflies mimics monarch so birds wont eat them
  2. Prickly pear -
    • introduced in australia
    • had to introduce cactus moth to maintain growth
  3. Often stable in nature:
    • adaptations
    • refuges for prey
    • alternative prey species present
  4. Ecosystem ecology: succession:
    • process of change
    • -progression of changes in a community from a colonization to final community (climax)
  5. Primary succession / Secondary succession:
    • no soil at beginning (slower)
    • rock ---->soil lichen ---mosses --- small herbaceous plants---shrubs---trees
    • soild at beginnning (faster)
    • field----small herb plants---shrubs---forests
  6. Changes in:
    • types of organisms colonists--->climax species
    • diversity increases
    • relationships/interactions = increase complexity
  7. main focus for ecosystem ecology:
    • energy flow and chemicals
    • food chain (4 trophic levels): carnivore-carnivore-herbivore-plants
    • plants: producers
    • herbivores: primary consumers
    • carnivors: secondary consumers
  8. omnivore:
    plants and animals (humans)
  9. Detritivore:
    • eater of dead material - detritus
    • a) decomposers-fungi,bacteria (organic into inorganic)
    • b) detritivore: eat middle size (worms)
    • c) scavengers: vulture, magpie -eat big to middle size
  10. Food chain in reality:
    • FOOD WEB
    • "grazing food web"
  11. Ecological pyramid:
    • more energy on bottom
    • food chain efficiency: % of energy availble on one level that is made into organisms on the next level up.
    • 10% avg. value - only 10% of E goes to next level
    • growth-cellular resp-fieces-death
    • -limit to number of levels
  12. PRODUCTIVITY:
    • primary productivity: organic matter made from sun/area/time. "gross primary productivity"
    • plants lose energy thru resp.
    • GPP - RESP.=net prim. prod. (usable by animals)

    • secondary prod.: amount of heterotroph produced/area/time
    • variabilty depends on location on earth
  13. Chemicals on earth:
    • cycle on earth "biogeo chemical cycles"
    • INSERT PIC FROM NOTES
  14. phosphorus cycle:
    Climate----down to plants---down to animals
  15. Phosphours cycle concepts:
    • 1) sun is extremely important- heats up earth-atmosphere
    • -as you go up it gets cooler (at 100m you lose 10F/6C)
    • 2) earths axis at an angle- tilted results in seasons
    • 3) sunbeams - heat up earth max at equator - air then rises and circulates north to south 30 degrees
    • rains at equator
    • at 30 degrees north and south - desserts
    • 4) rainfall
    • 5) rain shadow effect
  16. Biomes:
    • group of communities on large scale - all over earth
    • Tundra- areas beyond wehre trees grow
    • arctic tundra- treeline assoc w/ lattitude
    • alpine tundra - assoc. w altitude
    • 20% of land surface is tundra
  17. Timberline location: what causes timberline??
    • 1) excessive light (nope)
    • 2) CO2 partial pressure (nope)
    • 3) Snow depth (nope)
    • 4) wind *maybe
    • 5) heat deficiency/ lack of warmth *maybe
    • 6) "rippening" of twigs - not enought time/growing season too short *maybe
  18. Tundra *colder/windy/soil frost vs Forest
    • intensity of radiation:
    • arctic low - alpine high -forest high
    • quality of uv
    • arctic low - alpine high - forest high
    • photoperioed*sun stays up
    • arctic - 84days -alpine 15hours -forest15hours
    • temp (tundra colder thatn forest)
    • soild -tundra colder than forest
    • precipitaiton - tundra less than alpine and forest
    • wind - more in tundra than forest
    • soil frost in tundra not forest
    • permafrost in arctic, some in alpine, none in forest

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