ECOLOGY FOR FINAL 3

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
152778
Filename:
ECOLOGY FOR FINAL 3
Updated:
2012-05-07 19:02:25
Tags:
bio
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Description:
ecology animals part 3H
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  1. Animals "surviving the winter season"
    • 1)migration
    • 2)large/well insulated - stay there
    • 3)small-go hide in mircro environment that is more moderate
    • 4)hibernation
  2. Adaptations of plants:
    • 1) perenniality - come back every year
    • 2) size - small
    • 3) growth rate -fast
    • 4) reproduce in more than one way
    • 5) dormancy
    • 6) hairs
    • 7) heliotropism- move towards sun (more warmth, attract pollinators)
  3. Human impact on environment:
    • On land:
    • 1) waste - produced (dumps) solution- recyling
    • 2) pollution from agriculture and industry biological magnification - problem
    • 3) marginal envrironment - overgrazed/over farmed
    • grassland overused ---> desert "desertification"
    • 4) deforestation:
    • a)erosion
    • b)changes in rain fall
    • c)greenhous effect- atmosphere has more gases in it / earth warming
  4. Tropical deforestation:
    • trees hold nutrients
    • 1)acid rain- vehicles--> nitrogen oxides--->weak acids-->rain
    • coal---burning plants---sulfur oxide
    • in N.E. us / N. europe - lakes and forests affected
  5. Ozone layer:
    • uv light filtered out
    • UV causes- mutations--cancer and cataracts
    • thining of ozone
    • ozone hole- severe thinning of ozone-- South pole
    • CFC's destroying ozone layer (2050)
  6. Hydrosphere:
    • 1)h2o quality
    • 2)water availibilty
    • 3)ex: singapore - catching rainfall 20%
    • imports 40%, cleans "reclaim" 30%, desalination 10%
    • 4) pollution everywhere
  7. Climte change"
    • 1850-280ppm
    • 2008-385 ppm
    • 3/2012-394ppm
    • CO2 vs Time... perhaps we are affecting earths temp.
    • lengthen time span to see affects we have
  8. What do we measure:
    • glaciers melting
    • arctic sea ice
    • ocean and land temp. increasing
    • organisms ranges changing
    • coral reef problems (death)
    • alaska changes
  9. predicted changes:
    • more drought
    • extinctions
    • food production down in the tropics increasing in temperal
    • sea level changes
  10. Large scale efforts:
    • vehicles
    • greenhouse gases emissions reduced
    • get more energy from reusable resources
    • buildings
    • developing technologies
  11. small scale efforts:
    recycling, car pool, ride bike etc...
  12. Energy resources for humans:
    • "non-renewable"
    • "renewable"
    • a) nuclear -accident, terrorists, waste
    • b)fossil fuel (coal, oil (non. ren)
    • negative- increasing Co2, pollution
    • positive- cheap, available
    • c)solar- positive= clean
    • negative = expensive
    • d) hydroelctric (fish die) / wind (nois, kill birds) / geothermal
    • positive= clean
    • e)bio fuels
    • (algae, manure, wood debris)
    • -micro organisms in a dump-->methane--->collected--->electricity
    • genetically engineered E.coli--->breakdwon sugars in brown algae--->ehtanol
    • f)wave action
    • g)"peizoelectrics" - under roads/use compression to produce power.
  13. what can be done:
    • stablize earths pop.
    • use less energy and recylce
    • work on issue of importance to us
    • devolop alt. energies
    • agriculture - 1950's-60's "green revolution"
    • -gen. engineering
    • -look for new crop/plants
  14. conservation biology:
    • late 1970's - counter the higher extinction rate seen currently
    • preserving species, community and ecosystem
    • -1.5 million named species
    • extinction - normal process
    • Rate is high now- estimates 20% species may be extinct by 2050
  15. Endangered / threatened:
    • endangered: in danger of extinction
    • threatened: likely to become endangered
  16. Why not let species go extinct:
    • human usse species for food/shelter/medicine
    • do we have the right to cause a species to go extinct
    • humans use "healthy" ecosystems
  17. why do some species go extinct:
    • loss of gen. variablility- mov. of individual to increase genetic variabilty
    • FIG 60.3
  18. ecological relationships are disrupted:
    60.19
  19. habitat lose and habitat fragmentation:
    • is involved w/ 70% of all extinction
    • -if habitat is reduced by 90% -50% of species will be lost
    • -marine environments - corral reefs
    • in reefs 25% of all fish species (500 million people depend on fish)
    • -reefs diminishing at 2%/year (20% already dead)
    • causes - acidic in oceans - pollution
  20. Edge affects
    species in middle
  21. fragmentation:
    • habitat lose and fragmentation important in "hot spots" of endemism
    • endemism- only live in one are
    • hot spots - lots of endemic species (danger zones 4 exctinction)
    • -more people = more extinction
  22. overexploitation: *overuse
    • -galapagos tortoises
    • -many fish species (40-50% max expoited)
    • -25% overexploited
    • many whales
  23. introdcuced species:
    • fire ants
    • cheat grass
    • cichid fish - lake victoria, africa (orig. 300 species of fish, 1954 fishery introduced perch - ate 200 species of fish)
  24. amphibians on earth:
    • declining on earth
    • 50% of species declining
  25. How does conservation biologist determine extinction risk of species:
    • population viability analysis (PVP)
    • -birthrates -death rates etc...
    • -determine "minimal viable pop. size" mvp
  26. are any species more vulnerable:
    • low genetic variabilty
    • local endemics
    • migrant species
    • hunted / harvested species
  27. recovery plans:
    • species level - community level - ecosystem level
    • a) habitat restoration: removal of introduced species
    • -"restoration ecology" -bioremediation- use of living organism to detoxify area.
    • -augmentation of ecology processes
    • b)improve genetic diversity
    • c)propagate captive animals - world center for birds of prey
    • d) keystone species- care for keystone species (very important)
  28. GOALS:
    • maintain healthy ecosystems
    • develop / manage / conserve earth's resources
    • -NATIONAL PARKS / PRESERVES

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