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What is the function of the respiration system?
Exteranl/ Internal gas exchange and acid base balance
What is external gas exchange?
gas exchange between the atmosphere and blood
What is internal gas exchange?
gas exchange between blood and tissues
Describe the passageway that the air travels through. (Start with nose.)
3. Larynx (epiglottis)
7. Alveolar ducts
How many lobes are on the Lfets side of the lungs?
How many lobes are in the right side of the lungs?
What lowers the surface tension in the aveoli?
The aveoli is surround by what cells?
They are surrounded by capplilaries of a single cell thickness
What are the 3 layers that surround and protect the lungs?
How do gases move in the lungs? What equation can we use to describe this?
by bulk flow
What is the pressure in the pleural space during inspiration and expiration?
between -6 mm Hg (inspiration)
and -3 mm Hg (expiration)
What is the pressure in the alveoli in inspiration and expiration?
- 3 mm Hg Inhilation
+ 3 mm Hg Expiration
What is happening when your diaphragm and external intercostals contract?
In normal expiration what is happening?
In forced expiration what happens?
abdominal muscles and internal intercostals contract
What kind of process is expiration?
a passive process
What is the formula for resistance?
In the respiration system what are constant in the resistance formula?
Length and viscosity
what can change the resitance?
changes in bronchioles
What does the SNS do to the broncioles?
What does the PS do to the bronchioles?
If there is an increase in CO
what happens to the bronchioles?
The bronchioles dialate
Why does O
to match ventialtion
True or False.
Thepulmonary circuit has a low pressure.
What removes fluid from the lungs?
To keep fluid out of the aveoli the __________ pressure has to be greater than the __________ pressure.
net osmotic pressure
If there was a greater hydrostatic pressure in the aveoli than an osmotic pressure where is the fluid going?
in the aveloi. (not good)
volumes measure with respirometer
What is Residual Volume (RV) ?
it is the air left after expiration
How do you find the Inspiratory Capacity (IC)?
TV + IRV
Tidal volume and Inspiratory Reserve Volume
How do you find the Vital Capacity (VC)?
the sum of IRV + IV + ERV
How do you find the Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)?
ERV (expiratory reserve volume) + RV (Residual Volume)
WHat is the total Lung Capacity (TLC)?
VC + RV
How do you find the minute volume?
Respiratoy Rate (RR) x dead space (TV)
What is dead space in refrence to?
The air that never gets into the aveoli
How can you measure the Alveolar Ventilation?
Multiply the dead space (TV) by the respiratoy rate (RR)
How much energy is required for breathing?
There's a minimal amount due to low resistance.
What is surfactant?
it lowers the surface tension of aveoli
How is gas exchanged in the lungs?
What are gas concentrations measured in?
Partial Pressures due to gas laws
Decreased pressures at altitude equals a _________ in partial pressures (PP)