psyc of fam final vocab

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jax12
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psyc of fam final vocab
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2012-05-08 00:35:46
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psyc of fam final vocab
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  1. value
    an idea about what a person wants or what the world should be like.
  2. lay relationship theories
    the informal beliefs and values that everyday people accumulate.
  3. general lay theories
    • beliefs and values about relationships in general.
    • e.g. romance and passion are most important, relationships grow, relationships are fixed.
  4. specific lay theories
    beliefs and values about particular relationships we are experiencing or have experienced in the past.
  5. belief
    an idea or theory about what the world is actually like.
  6. expectations
    predictions about what is likely to happen in a particular relationship.
  7. locus of control
    a general belief about power to achieve goals.
  8. internal locus of control
    power to achieve goals comes from within themselves.
  9. external locus of control
    power to achieve goals results from outside power.
  10. attitude
    positive or negative evaluation of someone or something.
  11. sex-role traditionalism
    valuing a clear separation of the roles and responsibilities for men and women.
  12. standard
    • value that saves as a ruler or evaluating something.
    • expresses what a person would settle for, a minimum.
  13. differing standards of couples
    • independence and boundaries
    • exercising control – demands and
    • sharing control – egalitarian? or one has more influence than another.
    • expressing their investment in the relationship – frequency of affection
  14. ideal
    what a person wishes for, a maximum.
  15. perceptual confirmation
    if you expect that people will behave in a certain way, you are more likely to perceive that they behaved that way.
  16. behavioral confirmation
    our beliefs or expectations can shape the way we experience the world by affecting our behavior toward others.
  17. self fulfilling prophecy
    individuals act to bring about the experiences they expect to happen.
  18. learning goals
    drive people toward mastery of a topic
  19. performance goals
    drive people to seek out favorable evaluations and avoid negative ones.
  20. stereotype accuracy effect
    the fact that any two people are likely to agree on something because most people share this basic view.
  21. culture
    shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and values found among those who speak a particular language dialect in a specific geographic region, during a particular historic period.
  22. gender
    • people’s nonbiological and nonphysiological attributes characteristics and behaviors that are viewed as masculine or feminine.
    • dress, feelings and expressions, attitudes, values, interests.
  23. primary sex characteristics
    sex hormones, internal and external genitalia.
  24. secondary sex characteristics
    breasts, finer skin, facial hair, deep voice.
  25. tertiary sex characteristics
    social behaviors that men and women typically learn.
  26. intrasexual competition
    competition with other members of their own sex.
  27. social structural theory
    male female differences in division of labor are profoundly important for two reasons.
  28. power
    an indivs capacity to alter the behavior and experiences of others while resisting influence of others.
  29. empathic accuracy
    • the capacity for one person to be accurate in knowing what someone else is thinking or feeling.
    • women are better at this not because they have more skill but because they are more motivated.
  30. sex role identity
    the way people view themselves in terms of masculine and feminine traits.
  31. androgynous
    • people with equal levels of masculine and feminine traits.
    • enjoy higher levels of self esteem
    • lower levels of anxiety
    • higher levels of emotional intelligence
  32. unmitigated agency
    extreme forms of masculinity
  33. unmitigated communion
    • extreme forms of femininity
    • relying heavily on others for self esteem
    • become over involved with others to maintain a positive sense of who they are, may fail to learn to manage own emotions.
  34. schemas
    cognitive categories that organize ideas and beliefs about certain concepts.
  35. interventions
    specific kinds of educational and therapeutic experiences that individuals and couples have that might enhance their communication.
  36. object relations couples therapy
    • object refers to an internal representation that a person forms of someone who has taken care of him
    • representation that guides and influences the nature of the relationships the person has throughout his lifetime.
  37. projective identification
    • how a partner responds to emotional projections on them from the other partner that could be influenced by another or external situations
    • pivotal to the well being of the relationship
  38. systems models
    downplay indiv experiences and emphasize repetitive patterns of interaction between partners and the typically unspoken rules and beliefs that govern these interactions.
  39. behavioral couples therapy
    dysfunctional behaviors are the problem not a sign of a problem and are the primary target.
  40. behavior exchange
    • initial stage of behavioral couples therapy
    • provides therapist with diagnostic info on the extent to which partners can generate new positive experiences in their relationships
    • shows partners that improving their relationship can be enjoyable rather than painful.
  41. communication training
    • part of behavioral couples therapy
    • partners get practical advice on how to listen to each other.
  42. problem solving training
    • part of behavioral couples therapy
    • couples apply their communication skills to problems in their relationship following guidelines
  43. empathic joining
    practitioner aims to define problem in terms of a theme that takes both partners’ perspectives into account without blaming either of them.
  44. unified detachment
    whereby both partners learn to view their problems with less charged emotion and talk about them in more neutral descriptive terms.
  45. tolerance building
    interventions designed to help partners accept conflict will prove beneficial and instead congo with the fact that some undesirable aspects of the relationship will not change.
  46. emotionally focused couples therapy
    aims to create bonds rather than the bargains that typified traditional behavioral approaches.
  47. primary emotions
    • feeling of abandonment or rejection, shame, helplessness
    • may be masked by secondary emotions
  48. secondary emotions
    • anger
    • often mask primary emotions
  49. outcome research
    purpose is to determine what kinds of therapeutic interventions produce the best possible outcomes for couples.
  50. efficacy studies
    randomly assigning some couples to one or more forms of relationship therapy and other couples to some nontherapeutic condition and seeing the differences.
  51. effectiveness studies
    answers whether interventions do produce improvements when they are delivered by practitioners in the real world.
  52. public health model
    aim to enhance relationships and prevent distress before it happens.
  53. clinical model
    treating distress once it has developed into a major problem.
  54. primary prevention
    undertaken before distress happens to reduce new cases of relationship dysfunction.
  55. secondary prevention
    undertaken before it gets worse to assist those identified as vulnerable to distress.
  56. tertiary prevention
    • undertaken before its too late to treat and rehabilitate relationships
    • clinical model
  57. covenant marriage license
    requires couples to take part in premarital counseling that emphasizes the importance of marriage and the lifetime commitment entailed by it.
  58. Culturally competent
    – awareness of cultural and background differences, interested in understanding differences and respectful of differences, avoid profiling and making assumptions.
  59. Residential segregation
    – in poorer areas large business and nice stores wont plant themselves in those areas which translates to an ongoing reinforcement of poverty
  60. 5 relationship domains
    • relationship awareness
    • quality of interactions
    • meanings of intimacy
    • sex and physical intimacy
    • relationship dissolution and aftermath
  61. Relationship awareness
    – women more aware of their relationship, track more details; men taking in different information that’s important to them
  62. Quality of interactions
    – how meaningful the interaction is between the male and the female
  63. Meanings of intimacy
    – not a lot of differences in the way men and women describe intimacy
  64. Sex and physical intimacy
    • Men tend to want more sex throughout relationship
    • Women tend to want more emotional support/connection as relationship goes on
  65. Relationship dissolution and aftermath
    • Men first in last out
    • Women last in first out
  66. Spirituality
    - the search for the sacred ranging from individual or in an organized fashion with a large group
  67. Religion
    - some form of organized of traditions, beliefs, dogmas, practices that are done by some kind of community of people
  68. Psychodynamic
    • Focused on object (person as representation in your mind) relations therapy
    • belief that unconscious processes and past experiences are the root of problematic behaviors or symptoms of distress
  69. Systems
    • Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems based on idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
    • Two people are not just two people they are in a system with rules, boundaries, and roles
  70. TRADITIONAL BEHAVIORAL couple therapy
    • Based on increasing positive behaviors and decreasing negative ones in a marriage/relationship, little consideration for thoughts or feelings
    • Provide training in communication and conflict resolution (decrease negatives)
    • increase positives) behavior exchange, planning and implementation of positive activities (discussion of what would you like to have happen in your relationship)
  71. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL couple therapy
    • Same as traditional but adding the cognitive component; not just what they do but what they are thinking
    • importance of changing the way partners behave with each other
    • people are disturbed not by things but by the view they take of them.
    • has not been more effective, is about the same [not as much research on it]
  72. INTEGRATIVE BEHAVIORAL couple therapy
    • All of the decreasing negative and increasing positive tasks are rule governed
    • Develops a story of a couple and their problems (formulation) – theme, polarization process, mutual trap
    • Based on the idea that people in relationships always try to change each other
    • helps couples see it is beneficial to tolerate and accept aspects of the partner and the relationship that are displeasing.
  73. Emotion-focused (has empirical support)
    • Based on attachment theory, is not behavioral at all, focus on sharing emotions and addressing attachment injuries and improving secure attachment
    • Has most empirical support after TBCT
  74. Effectiveness of CT
    • Works better if both partners are engaged in the relationship
    • if they are committed to the relationship
    • if couples come in less distressed
    • Race, gender, age doesn’t matter as to the effectiveness on couples

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