AP gov chap 21

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AP gov chap 21
2012-05-07 20:07:32
ap gov chap 21 Sate Local Government

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  1. subnational governments
    Another way of referring to state and local governments. Through a process of reform, modernization, and changing intergovernmental relations since the 1960s, these have assumed new responsibilities and importance
  2. Merit Plan
    Method for selecting state judges in which govenors appoint persons based on the recommendations of a committee. After serving a short term, the dudge then often faces a retention election.
  3. Direct democracy
    Government controlled directly by citizens. In some US states, procedures such as the initiative, the referendum, and the recall give voters a direct impact on policymaking and the political process by means ofthe voting booth and can therefor be considered forms of this term.
  4. initiative
    A process permitted in some states whereby voters may place proposed changes to stat law on the ballot if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a vote.
  5. referendum
    a stat-level method of direct legislation that gieves voters a chance to approve or disapprove legislation or a constitutional amendment proposed by the state legislature.
  6. recall
    A procedure that allows voters to call a special election for a specific official in an attempt to throw him or her out of office before the end of term. Recalls are permitted in only 17 states, seldom used because of their cost and disruptiveneess, and rarely successful.
  7. Dillon's Rule
    the idea that local governments have only those powers that are explicitly given them by the states. This means that local governments have very little discretion over what policies they pursue or how they pursue them. It was named for Iowa Judge John Dillon, who expressed this idea in an 1868 court decision.
  8. local charter
    An organizational statement and grant of authority from the state to a local government, much like a state or federal constitution. States sometimes allow municipalities to write their own charters and to change them without permission of the state legislature, within limits. See also home rule.
  9. Home rule
    The preactice by which municipalities are permitted by the states to write their own charters and change them without permission of the states, within limits. Today this practice is widely used to organize and modernize municipal government. See also local charter.
  10. town meeting
    A special form of direct democracy under which all voting-age adults in a community gather one a year to make public policy. Now used only in a few villages in upper New England.
  11. city manager (coucil-manager form of government)
    An official appointed by the city council who is responsible for implementing and administering the coucil's acionts. More than one-third of US cities use the this form of government
  12. council of governments
    Councils in many areas of the country where officials from various localities meet to discuss mutual problems and plan joint, cooperative action.