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Two types of child molesters
Fixated child sex offenders
- Persistent, continual, compulsive attraction to children from adolescence
- Victims are usually extrafamilial
- Exhibit psychological/emotional characteristics of children
- Unable to attain psychosexual maturity
- No age-appropriate sexual relationships (may attempt these as camouflage or for access)
- Recruit, groom & develop relationships with vulnerable children
- "Relationships" continue for several years
- Believe the sexual contact is caring & mutual
- Believes child receives pleasure/education from the abuse
- Victims of this type of abuser are less likely to report or more likely to delay reporting
- Male victims danger age is 4 yrs then adolescence
- Female victims danger age is 2 yrs into teens
- Average of 150 victims
Regressed child sex offenders
- Primary sexual attraction is to agemates
- Abuse is a temporary departure precipitated by external stressors
- Indiscriminate - rarely attracted to a specific type of child
- Victims are children to whom they have easy access - usually famlial, if extrafamilial, example might = daughter's friend spending the night
- Victims' gender varies
- Offenders are usually married or cohabitating
- Poor self-confidence, low self-esteem, self-pity
- Fewer victims
- Behavior emerges in adulthood
- Capable of feeling remorse
- Lower risk of reoffending if treated
FBI Situational child sex offenders
- Regressed (children as substitute for adult relationships)
- Morally indiscriminate (no age preference, uses children or adults for their own interests)
- Sexually indiscriminate (experimentation, abuses children out of boredom)
- Inadequate (social misfit, insecure, sees children as only available sexual outlet)
FBI Preferential child sex offenders
- Seductive (affection, love, gifts, enticements, creates relationship with child)
- Fixated (compulsively attracted to children related to poor psychosexual development)
- Sadistic (aggressive, sexually excited by violence, usually target stranger victims, extremely dangerous, these are the abductors)
♀ child sex offenders
- Teacher-Lover (less likely to be reported)
- Experimenter-Exploiter (sees as educating victim, victim may show curiosity)
- Predisposed (perp was likely abused as a child & associates all sex with sexual abuse)
- Male-Coerced (forced to offend by ♂ partner, some eventually offend on their own)
- Pedophiles (true ♀ pedophiles - actually erotically attracted to prepubescent children = extremely rare, this is a paraphilia (mental health disorder))
What is the most striking characteristic of sex offenders, from a diagnostic standpoint?
Their apparent normality
Describe the cycle of child sex offense
- Deviant sexual fantasies (everything hinges on the fantasy)
- Masturbation (pleasure reinforces the fantasy)
- Steps toward overtly deviant behavior
- Targets victim (find pool of victims, narrow down)
- Fantasy rehearsal (place specific target in fantasy)
- Plan the act
- Groom the victim & everyone around zir
- Reinforcement of the original fantasy ("almost perfect this time")
- Negative feelings (anxiety, not guilt, just fear of getting caught)
Messages victims learn from child sexual abuse
- Don't feel
- Always be in control
- Don't trust
- Keep the secret
- Be ashamed of yourself.
Hard signs of incest - if these exist, child MUST be evaluated
- Sexualized play or art
- Sexualized behavior
- One or more STIs
- Child reports sexual abuse
Soft signs of incest - child should be evaluated
- Lack of privacy (no doors...)
- Reports of nudity or partial nudity
- Unusual behaviors around chores/parent always checking on child
- Sleeping fully clothed
- Use of sexualized insults ("whore," "slut") toward daugher
- Pseudo-maturation/sexualized dress
- Jealous fathers/not allowing dating
- "Holocaust" eyes ("dead" eyes, 1000 mile stare)
- Consistent visitation by batterer
- Bite marks on upper thighs, breasts, buttocks of woman or child
Ways a child may report sexual abuse
- Someone removed my clothes
- Someone showed me zir privates
- Someone touched/poked/punched/hurt/etc. my "bottom"
- I saw sex happening between adults, adult(s) & child(ren), children, adults & animals, children & animals
- Someone made me touch zir privates
- Someone touched/put something in my mouth
- Something was put inside me
- Hints about sexual activity
- Someone is "bothering" me
Physical & Medical signs of child sexual abuse
- Relaxes (rather than tenses) anus when touched
- Anal/rectal lacerations/scarring
- Enlarged vaginal opening
- Vaginal laceration/scarring
- Sore penis
- Anger/rage/agitation around toileting
- Chronic constipation due to avoiding toilet
- Preoccupation with feces or urine
- History of soiling others or environment with body waste.
- Any assault, battery, sexual assault, sexual battery, or any criminal offense resulting in personal injury or death of one family or household member by another, who is or was residing in the same single dwelling unit.
- "Family or household member" means spouse, former spouse, persons related by blood or by marriage, persons who are presently residing together, as if a family, or who have resided together in the past, as if a family, and persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they have been married or have resided together at any time.
What percentage of women have a lifetime risk of victimization (rape, physical assault, and stalking)?
What percentage of men have a lifetime risk of victimization (rape, physical assault, and stalking)?
At what age are women most vulnerable to intimate violence?
What are the three general types of family violence?
Physical, sexual, psychological/emotional
What are the three phases in a battering relationship?
- Tension-building phase (a/k/a Tension reduction phase)
- Acute battering phase
- Honeymoon phase (a/k/a Loving contrition phase)
Why do victims stay in abusive relationships?
- Dependence on batterer
- Family pressure
- Religious reasons
- Rural areas
What to say to victims:
- I believe you
- I'm concerned for your safety
- I'm concerned for your children's safety
- When you're ready to make a change, there is help for you & your children
- It's not your fault
- You deserve to be happy.
- Are coercively controlling, intimidating
- Are entitled, self-centered
- Are manipulative, have good public image
- Are disrespectful, superior, depersonalizing
- Punish, retaliate
- Have ownership mentality
- Justify use of violence & abuse
- Violence Against Women Act of 1994
- Federal funding for:
- -DV programs
- -Criminal justice interventions
- -Research addressing violence against women
- -Nat'l DV hotline
The four areas to be addressed with victims of DV:
- Establish independence
- Community resources
- Criminal justice support
What is the difference between victims of crime and victims of natural disaster?
- Crime vics = isolation & stigma
- Natural disaster vics = togetherness & acceptance
What percentage of people experience sexual assault prior to age 18?
- ♀ = 1 in 3
- ♂ = 1 in 7 to 10
What do battered partners who go from one abuser to another usually have in common?
Usually sexually abused as children
What social movements influenced the victim services movement?
- Civil rights (equality, justice, respect, change from inside out, nonviolent protest, power of media)
- Antiwar (nonviolent resistance, young people found a voice, recognition that a group of powerless people can wield power)
- Feminist (earliest victim advocates came direction from this movement, made rape/sexual assault/incest/etc. talkable topics)
- Law & order ("find the bad guys, arrest 'em, lock 'em up" - Victim & Witness Protection Act of 1982)
- Audience = general public
- Attempts to completely prevent/delete the problem
- a/k/a "early intervention."
- Audience = at-risk populations
- Attempts to reduce risk
- a/k/a "risk reduction."
- Audience = victims
- Attempts to minimize trauma & prevent re-traumatization
- a/k/a "crisis intervention."
Any physical or mental impairment caused by accident, trauma, genetics, or disease that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual
Things that make one more likely to become a perpetrator
Things that make one more likely to become a victim
Things that make one less likely to become either a victim or a perpetrator
Injury Prevention Model
- Describe the problem
- Describe vulnerability, risk, and protective factors
- Design and evaluate intervention strategies
- Ensure widespread use of these strategies.
9 principles of effective prevention programs
- Varied teaching methods
- Sufficient dosage
- Theory driven
- Positive relationships
- Appropriately timed
- Socioculturally relevant
- Outcome evaluation
- Well-trained staff
Spectrum of prevention
- Influencing policy & legislation
- Changing organizational practices
- Fostering coalitions & networks
- Educating providers
- Promoting community education
- Strengthening individual knowledge & skills
- Any type of sexual activity that you do not agree to, including: inappropriate touching; vaginal, anal or oral penetration; sexual intercourse that you say no to; rape; attempted rape; child molestation.
- Can be verbal, visual, or anything that forces a person to join in unwanted sexual contact or attention.
Rape, legal definition
FORCED sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal, or oral PENETRATION. Penetration may be by a body part or an object. Rape victims may be forced through threats or physical means.
What percentage of rapes have alcohol as a factor?
What are barriers to rape victims reporting?
- Fear of being disbelieved, fear of medical & legal proceedings
- Fear or reprisal
- Lack of faith in justice system
- Do not want others to know
- Humiliation & shame
- Social attitudes of victim blaming
- Confusion about whether crime occurred
What are the four "survival instinct" responses to traumatic events?
Rape Trauma Syndrome
The acute phase & long-term reorganization process that occurs as a result of rape. This syndrome of behavioral, somatic, & psychological reactions is an acute stress reaction to a life-threatening situation.
Goal of advocate
Increase services provided to victim while decreasing negative interactions between victim and medical/legal services
Do's of Crisis Intervention
- Make sure emergency medical needs are met
- Make sure victim is safe
- Reinforce that feelings are normal
- Allow (don't force) victim to tell account of assault
- Be an active listener
- Be respectful
- Reinforce that a crime occurred & that victim did nothing wrong
- Allow victim to regain sense of control
Don't's of Crisis Intervention
- Don't phrase questions tt could indicate blame (Why did you...)
- Don't judge victim
- Don't rush victim
- Don't tell victim "everything will be ok"
- Don't force or coerce victim to participate in SANE, justice system, etc. (you can encourage)
Loss of freedom to another's control by force, fraud, or coercion
Domination or control by force, intimidation, authority, compulsion, exploitation of fear/anxiety, especially without regard for individual desire or volition
Vulnerability factors for trafficking
- Low self-esteem
- Looking for love & adoration
- Socioeconomic status
What do victim service providers need to know?
- Oklahoma victims rights
- Domestic violence
- Child victimization
- Financial assistance for survivors
- Respecting diversity
- Court processes
- Criminal justice system
- Sexual assault
- Effects of violence on children
- The healing process.
What type of person should victim advocate be?
- Emotional strength
What skills do victim service providers need to have?
- Basic support skills
- Crisis intervention skills
- Dealing with child victims
- Knowing resources
- Providing accurate information
Sexual Abuse of Children (not legal definition)
The exploitation of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult
Types of child sexual abuse
- Genital exposure
- Observation of the child
- Handling (a/k/a fondling but that word has positive connations)
- Digital, penile, or object penetration of anus, vagina, or mouth (most common object = toys, crayons, etc. - whatever's at hand in the child's environment)
- Dry intercourse
- Child prostitution or porn
- Online/offline predatory behavior
Phases of child sexual abuse
- Relationship of participants
What two things happen when a child is sexually abused?
- Childhood ends
- Survival begins
What four core things do victims need from advocates?
Initial crisis response
- Impact/acute phase
- Recoil phase
- Reorganization phase
Three kinds of stressors
Event occurs that is beyond the person's normal coping mechanisms
Trauma vs. Crisis
Trauma has longer effects & they're negative
Who is responsible for ensuring victims' rights?
Everyone in the justice system is responsible for protecting a victim's rights.
Oklahoma Victim Rights Amendment (also applies to witnesses)
- Right to know the status of investigation
- Prosecution of criminal case, including all proceedings whereing a disposition of the case is likely to occur
- Where plea negotiations may occur
- Right to know location of defendant after arrest, during prosecution, during sentence to probation or confinement
- Right to info (current custody status, VPO info)
- Right to notification (change in custody status, service & hearing dates, etc.)
Stages of active/responsible bystander behavior
- Notice event
- Interpret behavior as problem
- Feel responsible for solving
- Possess skills to act
What are triggers for victims?
- Events such as birthdays, anniversaries, marriages, family celebrations
- The five senses
Mind/body/spirit, therefore how victims think/feel/behave
- Stop talking
- Ask questions (but don't interrogate)
- Don't give up too soon (don't interrupt, give them time)\
- Concentrate on what they're saying
- Look at them (face, mouth, eyes, hands)
- Smile & nod appropriately
- Leave your emotions behind
- Control your anger
- Get rid of distractions
- Get to the main points
- Share responsibility for communication
- React to ideas, not the person
- Don't argue mentally
- Listen faster than they talk
- Listen for what is not said
- Listen to how something is said
- Don't antagonize
- Listen for personality
- Avoid classifying the speaker
- Avoid assumptions
- Avoid hasty judgment
- Recognize your own prejudices
Roles in Family with Substance Abuse
- The chemically dependent person
- The chief enabler
- The family hero
- The scapegoat
- The lost child
- The mascot
Who are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population?
Single women with children
Issues affecting homeless women
- Sexual victimization
- Pregnancy complications
- Risk of violence -> mental health & substance abuse disorders
- Increased risk of HIV & other STIs
- Limited or no access to healthcare
What percentage of homeless women are raped at some point?
Considerations for services for homeless women
- Social isolation/invisibility
- Lack of transportation
- Mental health/substance abuse issues
- Lack of documentation
- Multiple health issues
- History of child sexual abuse
What homeless women need
- Direct services (case management, support services)
- Crisis intervention (place to go 24/7 where their situation is understood & they are not seen as an inconvenience)
- System advocacy (helping them navigate systems they do not understand or have never maneuvered before)
Regarding prosecution, what are victims' two top concerns?
- Where do we start?
- When do we start?
What are the stages of adjustment for victims of trauma?
- Shock ("I'm numb")
- Denial ("This can't have happened")
- Anger ("What did I do? Why me?")
- Bargaining ("Let's go on as if it didn't happen")
- Depression ("I feel so dirty, so worthless")
- Acceptance ("Life can go on")
- Assimilation ("It's part of my life")
What is "flat affect"?
No demonstration of emotional response
What does an FBI Victim Specialist do?
- Direct services (On-scene response, crisis intervention; medical/forensic exams, transportation; death notifications, interview assistance)
- Resources & referrals (counseling, medical, substane abuse, victims compensation program, basic needs, safety concerns)
- Liaison (point of contact for vicims, point of contact in agency for victim issues, point of contact for community & service providers)
What are Victims Rights according to federal law?
- The right
- - To be reasonably protected from the accused
- - To reasonable, accurate, & timely notice of any public court proceeding, or any parole proceeding, involving the crime or any release or escape of the accused
- - Not to be excluded from any such public court proceeding, unless the court, after receiving clear and convincing evidence, determines that testimony by the victim would be materially altered if the victim heard other testimony at that proceeding
- - To be reasonably heard at any public proceeding in the district court involving release, plea, sentencing, or any parole proceeding
- - To reasonably confer with the attorney for the government in the case
- - To full and timely restitution as provided by law
- - To proceedings free from unreasonable delay
- - To be treated with fairness and with respect for the victim's dignity and privacy
- Victims of Crime Act of 1984
- No taxpayer $ - funding generated by federal fines, penalties, forfeited bonds
- Purpose = direct services to victims of any type of crime
- Cannot be used for Law Enforcement officers, only direct victim services
Oklahoma Victim Compensation
- No tax $ used - funding generated via fines and penalties
- Available to victim, survivor of deceased victim, person authorized to act on behalf of victim
Types of crimes compensated by Oklahoma Victim Compensation program
- Sexual assault
- Assault & battery
- Child abuse
- All violent crimes
Types of expenses covered by Oklahoma Victim Compensation program
- Funeral & burial
- Loss of support
- Victims' wage loss
- Caregiver wage loss
- Dependent care
- Sexual assault exams
- Crime scene clean-up
- Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner program
- Funded by Crime Victims Compensation Fund
- Covers forensic exams for evidentiary purposes
- Do not have to report to law enforcement
Crime Victims Liaison in Indian Country
Oklahoma is the only state with this position so far
Why are victims' voices important?
There is no more credible voice in the justice system than that of victims.
- Sexual Assault Services Program
- Establish, maintain, expand sexual assault services by NGO victim services program
- Provides intervention, advocacy, accompaniment, support, services, and related assistance for adult, youth, and child victims of sexual assault, family of victims, and those collaterally affected by sexual assault
What is a Coordinated Community Response Team (CCRT or CCR Team)?
An interagency, multidisciplinary effort to change the community attitude about battering by formalizing practices and procedures which focus on victim safety and offender accountability in DV related cases.
STOP grant =
- Services, Training, Officers, Prosecutors (part of VAWA)
- To develop & strengthen criminal justice system response to & support/enhance services for victims
- Encourages multidisciplinary approaches to address DV, sexual assault, stalking
Death notification - what advocates need to do
- Make sure you have the right person!
- Have them sit down
- Use the word "dead"/"died"
- Give information
- GIRLS, I HAVE NO IDEA IF THIS IS CORRECT!!!!!!!
Power & Control
- All abuse is about power & control!
- - Using intimidation
- - Using emotional abuse
- - Using isolation
- - Minimizing, denying & blaming
- - Using children
- - Using male privilege
- - Using economy abuse
- - Using coercion & threats
What do prosecutors need from advocates?
- Teach them what to say and not say
- I AM NOT SURE OF THIS ANSWER!!!!!!
What qualifies one as a member of a minority group?
- Unequal treatment
- Physical & cultural traits
- Involuntary membership
- Awareness of subordinate position
Types of minority groups
- Gender/Sexual Orientation
What is prejudice?
Disliking or forming negative opinions about an entire racial or ethnic group.
What is discrimination?
Behavior that excludes all members of a group from certain rights, privileges, or opportunities.
What is genocide?
Organized actions to eliminate an entire group's existence.
What is a hate or bias crime as defined in the Federal Hate Crimes Act of 1990?
A crime motivated by hatred against a victim based on his or her race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or national origin.
On what areas do hate and bias crimes have an impact?
- The victim
- The community
- Our democratic society
- Civil rights
Bias crime indicators
- Racial, religious, ethnic/national origin, or sexual orientation of victim differs from that of the offender
- Victim is a member of a group that is overwhelmingly outnumbered by members of another group in the area
- Victim was involved in activities that promoted zir group or if the crime coincided with a holiday or date significant to the victim's group
- History of animosity between the victim's group and the perpetrator's group
- Presence of bias-related comments, written statements, gestures, drawings, markings, symbols, graffiti, objects or items
- Victim was visiting a location where other hate crimes had been committed against members of zir group
- Victim had been receiving harassing communication based on zir membership in a group
- Victim perceives bias as motivation for the crime
- Crime occurred in a location commonly associated with or frequented by members of zir group or shortly after victim left such a location
- No other clear motivation for the crime exists
What three schemes should advocates keep in mind when intervening with victims from different cultures?
- Axis of control (degree to which individuals feel personal control of their lives & degree to which they may feel responsible for what happens to them and their community)
- Axis of conflict (how people tend to react to conflict and the goals they seek in resolving conflict)
- Axis of life (different perspectives on life & death issues; whether individuals seek to resolve concerns about life & death through communing with nature, God, or technology)
Cultural assessement for determining level of identification with culture/ethnic group
- Determine extent that ethnic language is spoken in the home
- Determine how well English is spoken
- Determine stresses on ethnic group as a whole & how long the individual/community has been in the US
- Determine community of residence & opportunities the individual has for linking with people of similar ethnic origin
- Determine educational attainment & socioeconomic status of individual & community
- Determine degree of religious faith of individual &/or community & whether that faith reflects the religion of the ethnic group
- Determine the presence of intermarriage in the community - by individuals, within families, or within the community as a whole
An awareness of one's own cultural limitations
Name some significant advocacy groups in victims assistance
- National Organization of Victims Assistance (NOVA)
- National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC)
- National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV)
- National Network to End Domestic Violence (NNEDV)
- National Coalition Against Sexual Assault (NCASA)
- Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network (RAINN)
- Parents of Murdered Children (POMC)
- Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
- National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC)
- National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards (NACVCB)
- Victims Assistance Legal Organization (VALOR)
What are the three branches of government involved in developing public policy?
What two key types of legislation does the crime victims' field depend on?
- Those that provide funding
- Those that provide rights
- (Often these laws are intertwined)
Victims' Rights Laws can be divided into what general categories
- Right to information & notification
- Right to be heard
- Right to participate
- Right to protection from intimidation & harm
- Right to financial redress