Card Set Information
How is avian pox controlled?
Vaccines (fowl, quail, canary) at 4-6 weeks of age
What is the infectious agent that causes erysipelas in birds?
How should a beak be trimmed?
Dremel on low power
Create normal beak shape
Mineral oil/vitamin E
Where should a feather be clipped in a wing trim?
Shaft above the covert line
What feathers should be clipped in a wing trim?
Clip 7-9 primaries
Leave most distal primary (10)
What birds are recommended for the polyoma vaccine?
Multiple bird households
How much blood can safely be taken from a bird?
1% of body weight
What species of birds have the largest RBCs?
What is unique about the avian thrombocyte?
What is the most numerous inflammatory cell in most species and the most likely to smudge when making a blood smear?
In what birds is it common to find eosinophils?
In what species of birds is common to find lymphocytes >50%?
What is the second most common inflammatory cell in the bird?
What is the largest avian inflammatory cell?
What enzymes are liver specific in the bird?
When do you see a rise in bile acids in the bird?
80% loss of liver function
What value is used to detect renal disease in birds?
Elevated uric acid levels
In what type of birds is uric acid usually high after a meal?
What are some clinical signs of avian polyoma virus infection?
Delayed crop emptying
What birds are typically affected by Polyoma virus?
How is Polyoma diagnosed?
Necropsy with histo INIB
Crop/choanal swab for virus neutralization assay
What type of virus causes Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease?
What are some clinical signs of psittacine beak and feather disease?
Progressive feather loss
Abnormal feather growth
Necrosis/fracture of distal beak
How is psittacine beak and feather disease diagnosed?
Biopsies of affected feathers (basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions)
What type of virus causes Pacheco's Disease?
What are some clinical signs associated with Pacheco's disease?
Lethargy, depression, anorexia
Bright yellow urates
How is Pacheco's disease diagnosed?
PCR of swabs or tissues
What drug can be used to treat Pacheco's disease?
What are some clinical signs associated with Chlamydiophila psittaci infection (zoonotic and reportable)?
Upper respiratory tract infection
What opportunistic fungus infects immunosuppressed or young birds (hand fed) causing clinical signs of regurgitation and plaques in oral cavity?
What drugs should be used to treat a Candida albicans infection?
What clinical signs are associated with a Malassezia sp. infection and how should it be treated?
Treatment - Fluconazole and Chlorhexidine
How do you diagnose an Apsergillus fumigatus infection?
What is etiological agent behind scaly leg disease?
What are some blood sucking mites found in birds?
Dermanyssus gallinae (hide in nests)
Ornithonyssus sylviarum (entire lifecycle on host)
How many compartments does a camelid stomach have?
What is an expandable diverticulum on the ventral median soft palate of the male dromedary, which protrudes from the mouth when stimulated?
What type of foot does a camelid have?
2 digits and each foot has a nail (no hoof)
What organism is the cause of entertoxemia in camelids?
Clostridium perfringens C & D
What are some nutritional considerations for the NWC?
Sensitive to copper in feed
Vitamin E/Selenium deficient areas
Vitamin D in deficient areas
What is unique about the pig abdomen?
Huge abdominal fat deposits
Thin abdominal muscles
What veins are good for blood draws in pigs?
Do pigs sweat?
When giving an IM injection in a pig, how much extra should you add to compensate for leakage?
The laryngeal diverticulum of the pig, predisposes it to what?
When is it best to do pig neutering?
What must you do in a pig neutering to prevent herniation?
Close external inguinal canal
What should you swab in a bird to get a bacterial sample of it's upper respiratory tract? GI tract?
URT - choana
GI tract - Cloaca
What type of flora is common in psittacines?
Where should you place an interosseous catheter in a bird <500grams?
Where should you place an interosseous catheter in a bird >500grams?
What type of needle should be used in an interosseous catheter?
Spinal needle w/ stylet
How much blood is it safe to take from a bird?
1% of body weight
A PCV of what constitutes a blood transfusion in a bird?
Do birds have blood types?
No, but use the same species
How should blood be administered in a blood transfusion to a bird?
2 mls/min bolus over 2-4 hours w/ a pediatric filter
What flow rate should oxygen have in avian anesthetics?
What anesthetic gas should be used for induction in birds? Maintenance?
Induction - 4-5%
Maintenance - 2-3%