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  1. How is avian pox controlled?
    • Mosquito control
    • Vaccines (fowl, quail, canary) at 4-6 weeks of age
  2. What is the infectious agent that causes erysipelas in birds?
    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  3. How should a beak be trimmed?
    • Dremel on low power
    • Create normal beak shape
    • Mineral oil/vitamin E
  4. Where should a feather be clipped in a wing trim?
    Shaft above the covert line
  5. What feathers should be clipped in a wing trim?
    • Clip 7-9 primaries
    • Leave most distal primary (10)
  6. What birds are recommended for the polyoma vaccine?
    • Multiple bird households
    • Breeding birds
    • traveling birds
  7. How much blood can safely be taken from a bird?
    1% of body weight
  8. What species of birds have the largest RBCs?
    • Ratites
    • Penguins
  9. What is unique about the avian thrombocyte?
  10. What is the most numerous inflammatory cell in most species and the most likely to smudge when making a blood smear?
  11. In what birds is it common to find eosinophils?
    • Raptors
    • Waterfowl
    • Herons
  12. In what species of birds is common to find lymphocytes >50%?
    • Amazons
    • Canaries
    • Owls
  13. What is the second most common inflammatory cell in the bird?
  14. What is the largest avian inflammatory cell?
  15. What enzymes are liver specific in the bird?
    • GGT
    • GDH
  16. When do you see a rise in bile acids in the bird?
    80% loss of liver function
  17. What value is used to detect renal disease in birds?
    Elevated uric acid levels
  18. In what type of birds is uric acid usually high after a meal?
    Carnivorous birds
  19. What are some clinical signs of avian polyoma virus infection?
    • Lethargy
    • Delayed crop emptying
    • Sudden death
  20. What birds are typically affected by Polyoma virus?
  21. How is Polyoma diagnosed?
    • Necropsy with histo INIB
    • Crop/choanal swab for virus neutralization assay
    • PCR
  22. What type of virus causes Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease?
  23. What are some clinical signs of psittacine beak and feather disease?
    • Progressive feather loss
    • Abnormal feather growth
    • Necrosis/fracture of distal beak
  24. How is psittacine beak and feather disease diagnosed?
    • Gross appearance
    • PCR
    • Biopsies of affected feathers (basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions)
  25. What type of virus causes Pacheco's Disease?
  26. What are some clinical signs associated with Pacheco's disease?
    • Lethargy, depression, anorexia
    • Bright yellow urates
  27. How is Pacheco's disease diagnosed?
    PCR of swabs or tissues
  28. What drug can be used to treat Pacheco's disease?
  29. What are some clinical signs associated with Chlamydiophila psittaci infection (zoonotic and reportable)?
    • Upper respiratory tract infection
    • depression, anorexia
    • Hepatomegaly
  30. What opportunistic fungus infects immunosuppressed or young birds (hand fed) causing clinical signs of regurgitation and plaques in oral cavity?
    Candida albicans
  31. What drugs should be used to treat a Candida albicans infection?
    • Nystatin
    • Chlorhexidine
  32. What clinical signs are associated with a Malassezia sp. infection and how should it be treated?
    • Dermatitis
    • Treatment - Fluconazole and Chlorhexidine
  33. How do you diagnose an Apsergillus fumigatus infection?
    • Titers
    • Protein electrophoresis
    • Radiographs (granulomas)
    • Bronchoscopy
  34. What is etiological agent behind scaly leg disease?
    Knemidokoptes pilae
  35. What are some blood sucking mites found in birds?
    • Dermanyssus gallinae (hide in nests)
    • Ornithonyssus sylviarum (entire lifecycle on host)
  36. How many compartments does a camelid stomach have?
  37. What is an expandable diverticulum on the ventral median soft palate of the male dromedary, which protrudes from the mouth when stimulated?
    Palatine diverticula
  38. What type of foot does a camelid have?
    2 digits and each foot has a nail (no hoof)
  39. What organism is the cause of entertoxemia in camelids?
    Clostridium perfringens C & D
  40. What are some nutritional considerations for the NWC?
    • Sensitive to copper in feed
    • Vitamin E/Selenium deficient areas
    • Vitamin D in deficient areas
  41. What is unique about the pig abdomen?
    • Huge abdominal fat deposits
    • Thin abdominal muscles
  42. What veins are good for blood draws in pigs?
    Ear veins
  43. Do pigs sweat?
  44. When giving an IM injection in a pig, how much extra should you add to compensate for leakage?
    10% extra
  45. The laryngeal diverticulum of the pig, predisposes it to what?
  46. When is it best to do pig neutering?
    8-12 weeks
  47. What must you do in a pig neutering to prevent herniation?
    Close external inguinal canal
  48. What should you swab in a bird to get a bacterial sample of it's upper respiratory tract? GI tract?
    • URT - choana
    • GI tract - Cloaca
  49. What type of flora is common in psittacines?
    Gram +
  50. Where should you place an interosseous catheter in a bird <500grams?
    Proximal tibiotarsal
  51. Where should you place an interosseous catheter in a bird >500grams?
    Distal ulna
  52. What type of needle should be used in an interosseous catheter?
    Spinal needle w/ stylet
  53. How much blood is it safe to take from a bird?
    1% of body weight
  54. A PCV of what constitutes a blood transfusion in a bird?
  55. Do birds have blood types?
    No, but use the same species
  56. How should blood be administered in a blood transfusion to a bird?
    2 mls/min bolus over 2-4 hours w/ a pediatric filter
  57. What flow rate should oxygen have in avian anesthetics?
    >1 L/min
  58. What anesthetic gas should be used for induction in birds? Maintenance?
    • Induction - 4-5%
    • Maintenance - 2-3%
Card Set:
2012-05-08 00:57:35

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