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What viral disease is caused by Paramyxovirus type 1 and causes clinical signs of respiratory, deformed egg production, conjunctivitis, and encephalitis?
Exotic Newcastle Disease
How is Exotic Newcastle Disease diagnosed?
- Oropharyngeal swab with Real-time PCR
- Paired serology
- Virus isolation in chick embryo
How is Exotic Newcastle Disease controlled in the US?
What viral disease is caused by Orthomyxovirus (type A) has hemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7?
What are some clinical signs associated with low path avian influenza?
- Depression, respiratory
- Respiratory exudates
- Decreased egg production
What are some clinical signs associated with high path avian influenza?
- Sudden onset high mortality
- +/- Nervous signs
- Respiratory exudates
- Reproductive tract regression
How is Avian Influenza diagnosed?
- Pharyngreal/Cloacal swabs with Real-time PCR
- Antigen capture ELISA
What organization helps monitor backyard and live market poultry for avian influenza?
National Animal Laboratory Health Network
How is Avian Influenza controlled?
- Monitoring by serology and real-time PCR
What viral disease is caused by a coronavirus resulting in coughing, sneezing, rales, nasal and ocular discharge, decline in egg production and mortality from secondary E. coli infection?
What are some lesions associated with Infectious bronchitis?
- Catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory
- Swollen kidneys and uroliths
- Misshapen eggs
How is Infectious bronchitis diagnosed?
- Visus isolation in chick embryo
- Serum neutralization, ELISA
How is Infectious bronchitis controlled?
- Modified live vaccines (serotype strains Mass, Conn, Ark....)
- Inactivated vaccines used on hens
What viral disease is caused by a herpesvirus and has clinical signs of marked dyspnea, coughing, head extension, watery eyes, conjunctiva, bloody mucous and blood on face and feathers?
How is Infectious laryngotracheitis diagnosed?
- Virus Isolation
How is Infectious laryngotracheitis controlled?
- Two live attenuated virus vaccines
- Vectored/recombinant vaccines
- CEO (chick embryo origin) vaccine (reverts to virulence, no good)
What are the etiological agents behind Pullorum Disease?
- Salmonella pullorum
- Salmonella gallinarum
What plan was put into action to prevent and control Pullorum Disease?
National Poultry Improvement Plan
What is the result of Pullorum disease in suscpetible chicks and poultry?
- Fatal enteritis
What human pathogen can cause an inapparent infection in hens and transmitted to humans through the egg yolk?
If a farm tests positive for Salmonella enteritidis, what must be done?
Submit 1000 eggs (3 times at 2-week intervals)
What common GI organism in poultry is found in poultry dust at a concentration of 1 million organisms/gram?
In what type of birds is E. coli a problem?
What is the etiological agent behind necrotic enteritis?
Clostridium perfringens type C
What animals are generally infected with necrotic enteritis?
Chickens 2-8 weeks
What feeds promote Clostridium perfringens type C overgrowth?
- Animal by products
- Wheat diets
What lesions are associated with necrotic enteritis?
- Fibrinonecrotic enteritis
- Hepatic infarction
How is necrotic enteritis diagnosed?
- Gross lesions
- Isolation of C. perfringens is not diagnostic
How can necrotic enteritis be prevented or controlled?
- Diet formulation
- Identify concurrent disease stress
What is the etiological agent that causes Chronic Respiratory Disease in galliformes?
What is the etiological agent that causes synovitis and respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys?
How is Mycoplasmosis diagnosed?
- Serology (Rapid plate agglt, ELISA, and HI)
What is the most common final pathogen in many species of poultry?
What are some respiratory viruses that will cause increased host susceptibility to E. coli?
- Newcastle dz
- Infectious bronchitis
- Pneumovirus infection
- Avian influenza
What are some factors that will cause increased host susceptibility to E. coli, other than respiratory viruses?
- Respiratory cryptosporidium
- Bursal dz
- Chicken infectious anemia
How can you prevent an E. coli infection?
- Identify stress or underlying condition
- Closed water systems
- E. coli vaccines
What is the etiological agent that causes Infectious Coryza?
Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum
What are some clinical signs associated with Infectious Coryza?
- Nasal discharge
- Facial edema
How is Infectious Coryza diagnosed?
Culture or PCR
What co-pathogen is likely with Infectious coryza?
How is Infectious coryza prevented or controlled?
What is the etiological agent that is the cause of Fowl Cholera?
What species are affected by Fowl Cholera?
- Turkeys (all ages)
- Chickens (mature)
- Ducks and geese
What are some ways fowl cholera is prevented and controlled?
- Vector control
- Water sanitation
- Biosecurity and sanitation
What virus causes generalized T lymphocyte deficiency leading to immunosuppression in young chicks (thymus is the organ affected)?
Chicken Anemia Virus
What virus causes generalized B lymphocyte deficiency leading to immunosuppression in young chickens (Bursa of Fabricus is the organ affected)?
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV)
What type of virus causes chicken infectious anemia?
Chicken Anemia Virus (Girovirus)
What type of virus causes Infectious Bursal Disease?
Infectious bursal disease virus (Birnavirus)
How is chicken infectious anemia diagnosed?
- Virus isolation
- Viral DNA detection
How is chicken infectious anemia treated and controlled?
- No treatment
- Attenuated vaccine in water (14-18 weeks of age to breeders)
What are some clinical signs associated with infectious bursal disease?
- Depressed growth
- Diarrhea, dehydration
- Bursa acutely swollen
How is infectious bursal disease diagnosed?
- Bursa atrophy
- Virus isolation
How is infectious bursal disease treated and diagnosed?
- No treatment
- Vaccinate breeders with live and killed vaccine
- Vaccinate chicks in ovo (day 18) and at 1 day of age
What herpesvirus can cause an immunosuppression, peripheral neuritis, and lymphosarcoma in young chicks?
How is Marek's disease prevented?
Vaccination at first day of age or in ovo at 18 days
What type of viruses cause avian leukosis, that can lead to lymphosarcoma in mature to aged chickens?
What clinical signs are associated with avian pox?
- Skin, eyelids, mouth and trachea lesions
How is avian pox diagnosed?