Sociology: Mod 2

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hollyrt67
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152823
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Sociology: Mod 2
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2012-05-08 08:28:02
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Mod
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Chapters 2,3,6
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  1. ________ is/are the language, beliefs, values, norms, and material objects of a group that are passed from one generation to the next.
    Culture
  2. The practice of people forming a line while waiting to buy tickets instead of pushing people aside is an example of
    nonmaterial culture.
  3. Jewelry, art, buildings, and machines are examples of
    material culture.
  4. The tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others is
    ethnocentrism.
  5. Trying to understand a culture on its own terms is known as
    cultural relativism.
  6. Nonmaterial culture is sometimes referred to as
    symbolic culture.
  7. Gestures are
    useful shorthand ways of giving messages without using words.
  8. In language, each word is
    universal.
  9. ________ must be present if a group of people is to have a culture.
    Language
  10. The gold medal placed around the first-place swimmer's neck at the Olympics is an example of a
    positive sanction.
  11. Expectations or rules about behavior are known as
    norms
  12. _______ are norms that are NOT strictly enforced.
    Folkways
  13. A ________ society is made up of many different groups.
    pluralistic
  14. ________ are one example of a counterculture in America.
    Survivalists
  15. Which core value in U.S. society underscored the American Revolution?
    freedom
  16. Racism in America is an example of a(n)
    value contradiction.
  17. American society contains
    thousands of subcultures.
  18. What is the best example of an emerging value in America today?
    an emphasis on leisure
  19. The emerging U.S. value cluster focused on leisure, self-fulfillment, and physical fitness has come about because
    many Americans now retire at an age when they anticipate decades of life ahead of them.
  20. The glorification of academic progress in a culture where most people don't work as hard as they could in school is an example of
    ideal culture.
  21. Real culture is
    the norms and values that people actually follow.
  22. It is important for sociologists to study ________ because it sets the framework for a group's nonmaterial culture.
    technology
  23. When not all parts of a culture change at the same pace, it is called
    cultural lag.
  24. Cultural diffusion is the process by which
    groups adopt technology or nonmaterial culture from other groups.
  25. Finding McDonald's restaurants in various countries with different cultures is an example of
    cultural leveling.
  26. ________ is another name for our social environment and contact with others.
    Nurture
  27. share the exact same genetic heredity.
    Identical twins
  28. In their research study, what did Skeels and Dye introduce to the children at the orphanage?
    social interaction
  29. The phrase "Society makes us human" refers to
    socialization
  30. Charles Horton Cooley coined the term "looking-glass self" to describe
    how our sense of self develops from interaction with others.
  31. The development of a generalized other refers to one’s perception of how ________ think of us.
    people in general
  32. According to Mead, the first way children learn to take the role of the other is through
    imitation
  33. The team games stage of role taking occurs
    after age 6 or 7.
  34. Taking the role of others is essential if we are to
    become cooperative members of human groups.
  35. During the sensorimotor stage of development,
    understanding is limited to direct contact
  36. ________ was interested in how humans develop their abilities to reason.
    Jean Piaget
  37. During the formal operational stage of reasoning, the child is
    capable of abstract thinking.
  38. Who is considered the founder of psychoanalysis?
    Sigmund Freud
  39. According to Freud, when the superego gets out of hand
    people become overly rigid in following the norms of society.
  40. According to Freud, each child is born with a(n)
    id.
  41. Sociologists maintain that both the mind and emotions depend on
    socialization
  42. Our __________ are the first significant others who show us how to follow the gender map.
    parents
  43. Neighborhood, religion, day care, school, and peers are
    agents of socialization
  44. Lara Croft, the fictional, adventure-seeking archaeologist, is seen by some as
    a new gender image.
  45. Religious ideas so pervade U.S. society that they provide the foundation of ________ for both the religious and nonreligious.
    morality
  46. Resocialization is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match a person's
    new situation in life.
  47. The concept of a life course has sociological significance because passing through different life stages affects a person's
    behavior and attitudes.
  48. is a social invention, and was not recognized until the early 1900s.
    Adolescence
  49. Transitional ____________is described as a time when young adults gradually ease into adult responsibilities.
    adulthood
  50. A fundamental reorientation in thinking that takes place during the later middle years is
    a shift from measuring one's time since birth to time left to live.

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