western civ final key terms

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western civ final key terms
2012-05-07 21:53:45

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  1. Tsar Nicholas II
    • - r. 1894-1917
    • - Tsar during the Russo-Japanese war; Russians defeated
    • - Revolution in January 1905
    • - Introduces Manifesto on October 17, 1905
    • - Abdicates in 1917 when the collapse of state happened because of WWI
  2. Mensheviks
    • one split of the Marxist ideals in 1903
    • majority party
    • more orthodox
    • had to modernize and industrialize Russia before it could be Communist, which could take decades or centuries
    • modernization as well as revolution
  3. Bolsheviks
    • one split of the Marxist ideals in 1903
    • minority party
    • could skip a step as long as they have an elite revolutionary leadership
    • Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) wrote "What is to be Done?" in 1902
  4. Vladimir Lenin
    • 1870-1924
    • Bolshevik
    • Wrote "What is to be Done?" in 1902
    • “All Power to the Soviets”
    • “Peace, bread, and Land” – appeals to all the
    • major demographics: soldiers, city citizens, peasants
  5. Revolution of 1905
    • provoked by the defeat against the Japanese
    • "Bloody Sunday" on January 9, 1905 - Russian army fire on unarmed group of protestors; makes the situation worse; causes more people to protest
    • Nicholas II's Manifesto on October 17, 1905
  6. February Revolution of 1917
    • Nicholas II abdicates and provisional government of Liberals takes over along with Petrograd Soviets under "Dual Power"
    • Order No. 1 - Soviets
    • issue order that tell soldiers that if they did not like the officers and commanders are using they can elect new officers; collapses warfront as millions of soldiers leave the battlefield and return home
  7. October Revolution of 1917
    • overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks
    • Provisional Government falls on October 24, 1917
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 1918
  8. Russian Civil War
    • 1918-1921
    • "Red Army" vs. "White Russians"
    • Red defeated the white
  9. Joseph Stalin
    • 1897-1953, r. 1924-1953
    • "Socialism in one country"
    • Paranoid that people wanted him out of power, so he began to institute purges
    • Gulags were like concentration camps
    • 18m sent to gulags between 1929-38, 4.5 never returned
    • Signed a pact with Hitler to invade Poland which essentially started WWII, although he alligned himself with the Allies
  10. Manchurian Incident
    • eight years before the war began; significant to the war's beginning
    • September 18, 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria and declared war on China
  11. Invasion of Ethiopia
    • October 1935, Mussolini invades Ethiopia
    • Ethiopia is still an independent state
    • Invades and seizes control
    • League of Nations gives Mussolini a slap on the wrist
  12. Fascism
    can be defined in terms of “extreme nationalism, hatred of ethnic minorities (scapegoats), ruthless repression of opposition, violent anti-communism, and authoritarian government”
  13. Benito Mussolini
    • r. 1922-45
    • Fascist ruler of Italy
  14. Adolf Hitler
    • r. 1933-45
    • Rearmament in 1935 - invested heavily in building a larger army despite what Treaty of Versailles says
    • Remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936 - sends army to a demilitarized zone on the border with France
    • Sends help to Spanish Civil War 1936-9
    • Anschluss in March 1938 reunified Austria and Germany
    • Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1938-9 - policy of appeasement gave Czech to Germany
    • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in August 1939 - agrees not to fight with Stalin
    • Invasion of Poland in Sept 1939 - sparks the war
  15. Bretton Woods Conference
    • 1944
    • Sets up international monetary fund and world bank
    • Set up precautions to prevent a second Great Depression
  16. United Nations
    • 1945
    • Permanent seats on the Security Council went to US, Britain, France, Russia, and China
  17. Abdul Aziz ibn Saud & Saudia Arabia (1932)
    • ibn Saud established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • He and his sons have ruled down to the present
    • Oil discovered in 1935 and provided immense wealth to the Saudi ruling class
  18. Kemal Ataturk & Turkey (1922)
    Ataturk deposed the last Sultan and established the nation of Turkey with its capital at Ankara
  19. Reza Khan & Iran (1921/35)
    Renamed his kingdom to "Iran" in 1935
  20. Ayatollah Khomeini & the Iranian Revolution (1979)
    • Muhammad Reza Pahlavi worked closely with Western powers
    • Fell from power and new gov't threatened to nationalize oil
    • Ayatollah seized power
  21. Faisal I & Iraq (1921/30)
    Created a new monarchy and becomes king of Iraq