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  1. Panic of 1819
    � Bank tightened loan policies, depression rosethroughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
  2. Election of 1824 �
    �corrupt bargain� and backroom deal for JQAdams to win over Jackson
  3. Tariff of Abominations
    � under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff,South considered it the source of economic problems, madeJackson appear to advocate free trade
  4. Jackson�s Presidency �
    focused on the �Common Man;� removalof Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
  5. Transportation Revolution
    � river traffic, roadbuilding, canals(esp. Erie), rise of NYC
  6. Erie Canal
    � goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
  7. National Road
    � part of transportation revolution, fromCumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulatedWestern expansion
  8. Indian Removal Act
    � Jackson was allowed to relocate Indiantribes in the Louisiana Territory
  9. Five Civilized Tribes
    � Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks,Chickasaws, and Seminoles; �civilized� due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands byexpansion

    • �Trail of Tears�
    • � Cherokee tribe forced to move from southernAppalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, highdeath toll
  10. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    � first attempt of Cherokees to gaincomplete sovereign rule over their nation
  11. Worcester v. Georgia
    � Georgia cannot enforce American lawson Indian tribes
  12. Spoils System
    � �rotation in office;� Jackson felt that one shouldspend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, thosewho held power too long would become corrupt and politicalappointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
  13. Kitchen Cabinet
    � Jackson used personal friends as unofficialadvisors over his official cabinet
  14. Lowell mill/system
    � young women employed by Lowell�s textilecompany, housed in dormitories
  15. Cotton Gin
    � allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented byEli Whitney, less need for slaves
  16. Nullification Controversy
    � southern states (especially SouthCarolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal lawsunconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
  17. South Carolina Exposition and Protest
    � written by Calhoun,regarding tariff nullification
  18. Bank of the United States
    � destroyed by Jackson on the groundsthat it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federalinstitution
  19. Pet banks
    � small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federalfunds out of the National Bank, used until funds wereconsolidated into a single treasury
  20. Independent Treasury Bill
    � government would hold itsrevenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping thefunds away from private corporations; �America�s SecondDeclaration of Independence�
  21. Specie
    � paper money; specie circular decreed that thegovernment would not accept specie for government land
  22. Maysville Road Veto
    � vetoed by Jackson on the count thatgovernment funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit onestate
  23. Liberty Party
    � supported abolition, broke off of Anti-SlaverySociety
  24. Whig Party
    � believed in expanding federal power on economy,encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on thelocal level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
  25. John C. Calhoun
    � opposed Polk�s high-handedness, avidSouthern slave owner
  26. Marshall Court (all cases)
    � Marbury v. Madison (judicialreview), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutionalinterpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannotcontrol government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstatecommerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contractcannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v.Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties� consent)
  27. Second Great Awakening
    � religious movements, traveling�meetings,� rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G.Finney
  28. Burned-Over District
    � heavily evangelized to the point therewere no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith�s Mormonismmovement
  29. Horace Mann
    � worked to reform the American education system,abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
  30. William Lloyd Garrison
    • � editor of The Liberator
    • (stronglyabolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery),fought for feminist movement (�Am I not a woman and a sister� picture of slave woman)
  31. Frederick Douglass
    • � runaway slave, well-known speaker on thecondition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips,founder of
    • The North Star
  32. Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
    � for women�s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requestsafter the Declaration of Independence
  33. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    � organized Seneca Falls Convention,founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
  34. Angelina and Sarah Grimk�
    � fought for women�s rights andabolition, �Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!�
  35. Dorothea Dix
    � worked towards asylums for the mentally insane,worked alongside Mann
  36. John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community
    � John Noyes, NewYork; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, andcomplex marriage
  37. New Harmony
    � first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
  38. Hudson River School
    � American landscape painting rather thanClassical subjects
  39. Transcendentalism
    � founded by Emerson, strong emphasis onspiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strongreferences to nature
  40. Ralph Waldo Emerson
    � in Brook Farm Community, literarynationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom),wrote �The American Scholar�
  41. Henry David Thoreau
    • (Walden and On Civil Disobedience)
    • � in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two yearswriting
    • Walden,
    • proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants
    • Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860)
  42. Nat Turner�s Rebellion
    � Nat Turner led a slave rebellion inVirginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholdingVirginians to consider emancipation
  43. Yeoman Farmers
    � family farmers who hired out slaves for theharvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local marketsalongside slave owners
  44. Underground Railroad
    � network of safe houses of whiteabolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom
  45. Harriet Tubman
    � worked alongside Josiah Henson to makerepeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
  46. �Wage slaves�
    � northern factory workers who were discardedwhen too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed andclothed in their old age)
  47. Nativism
    � anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
  48. The Alamo
    � Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio),Texans lost great number of people, �Remember the Alamo�
  49. Stephen Austin
    � American who settled in Texas, one of theleaders for Texan independence from Mexico
  50. James K. Polk
    � �dark horse� Democratic candidate; acquiredmajority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation,Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
  51. Oregon and �Fifty-four Forty or Fight!�
    � Oregon Territoryowned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced tosettle for compromise south of 49� rather than 54�40�
  52. Manifest Destiny
    � stated the United States was destined to spanthe breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible,advocated by Polk
  53. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • � acquired Mexican Cession (futureCalifornia, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledgedAmerican annexation of Texas
    • Wilmot Proviso
    • � slavery to be barred in all territory ceded fromMexico; never fully passed Congress
  54. California Gold Rush
    • � gold discovery in Sutter�s Mill in 1848resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
    • The Civil War (1850-1880)
  55. William Seward
    � Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska �Seward�s Folly�
  56. Compromise of 1850
    � (1) California admitted as free state, (2)territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico,(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federalassumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6)new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Douglas
  57. Fugitive Slave Act
    � runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property � running away was as good as stealing)
  58. Harriet Beecher Stowe,
    • Uncle Tom�s Cabin
    • � depicted the evilsof slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South
  59. Know-Nothing (American) Party
    � opposed to all immigration,strongly anti-Catholic
  60. Popular Sovereignty
    � the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
  61. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    � territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed byStephen A. Douglas
  62. �Bleeding Kansas�
    � border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence,Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre
  63. Lecompton Constitution
    � proslavery constitution in Kansas,supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), deniedstatehood until after secession
  64. John Brown
    � led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionistwho believed he was doing God�s work
  65. Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
    � John Brown and his sonsslaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud inLawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
  66. Republican Party �
    formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
  67. Harpers Ferry (1859)
    � Brown aimed to create an armed slaverebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
  68. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    � slaves could not sue in federal courts(blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be takenfrom masters except by the law, Missouri Compromiseunconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
  69. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
    � over Senate seat for Illinois(Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain splitover the issue of slavery
  70. Freeport Doctrine
    � Douglas was able to reconcile the DredScott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be able toexclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property
  71. Fort Sumter
    � first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina
  72. 20-Negro Law
    � exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; �rich man�s war but a poor man�s fight�
  73. Anaconda plan
    � the Union planned a blockade that would notallow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control theMississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
  74. Ulysses S. Grant
    � won battles in the West and raised northernmorale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Unioncommanding general
  75. William T. Sherman
    � pushed through northern Georgia, capturedAtlanta, �march to the sea� (total war and destruction), proceededto South Carolina
  76. Robert E. Lee
    � opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyalto Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army
  77. Thomas J. �Stonewall� Jackson
    � Lee�s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
  78. Battle of Antietam
    � Lee�s attack on Maryland in hopes that hecould take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate,McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never beso close to victory again
  79. Emancipation Proclamation
    � issued by Lincoln followingAntietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did notinclude border states), symbolic gesture to support Union�s moralcause in the war
  80. Battle of Gettysburg
    � Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battleof the war, Confederate Pickett�s Charge (disastrous), Lee forced toretreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
  81. New York City draft riots (1863)
    � drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
  82. Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
    � South divided into 5military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
  83. Compromise of 1877
    • � South to gain removal of last troops fromReconstruction; North wins Hayes as president
    • Business and Labor: The Gilded Age (1865-1900)& Progressivism and Populism (1900-1920)
  84. Andrew Carnegie
    � achieved an abnormal rise in class system(steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled MesabieRange to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as amanager/partner), Bessemer steel process
  85. Standard Oil Trust
    � small oil companies sold stock and authorityto Rockefeller�s Standard Oil Company (consolidation), corneredworld petroleum market
  86. John D. Rockefeller
    � Standard Oil Company, ruthless businesstactics (survival of the fittest)
  87. Vertical and horizontal integration
    � beginnings of trusts(destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market(highly detrimental)
  88. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    � forbade restraint of trade and did notdistinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
  89. United States vs. EC Knight Company
    � decision under ShermanAnti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court � sugar refining wasmanufacturing rather than trade/commerce
  90. National Labor Union
    • � founded by William Sylvis
    • (1866);supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages,women; excluded blacks
  91. Knights of Labor
    • � founded byUriah Stephens
    • (1869); excludedcorrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor,employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; �bread and butter� unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
  92. Terence V. Powderly
    � Knights of Labor leader, opposedstrikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
  93. American Federation of Labor
    � craft unions that left the Knights(1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
  94. Samuel Gompers
    � focused on skilled workers (harder to replacethan unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8-hour workday and injury liability
  95. �Yellow dog contracts�
    � fearing the rise of labor unions,corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
  96. Pinkertons
    � detectives hired by employers as private police force,often used to end strikes
  97. Chinese Exclusion Act
    (1882) � 10-year moratorium on Chineseimmigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing towork for cheap salaries)
  98. Haymarket Bombing
    � bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers� unions
  99. Eugene V. Debs
    � led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested;Supreme Court (decisionin re Debs) legalized use of injunction(court order) against unions and strikes
  100. Social Darwinism
    • � natural selection applied to humancompetition, advocated by
    • Herbert Spencer,William GrahamSumner
  101. Henry George,
    • Progress and Poverty
    • � single tax on speculatedland to ameliorate industrialization misery
  102. Edward Bellamy,
    • Looking Backwards
    • � state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
  103. Karl Marx,
    • Das Kapital
    • � working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
  104. Thomas Edison
    � electric light, phonograph, mimeograph,Dictaphone, moving pictures
  105. Louis Sullivan
    � led architectural movement to create buildingdesigns that reflected buildings� functions, especially in Chicago
  106. Interstate Commerce Act
    � created Interstate CommerceCommission to require railroads to publish rates (lessdiscrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulatecorporations, ineffective ICC
  107. Social Gospel movement
    � stressed role of church and religion toimprove city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch andWashington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement andSalvation Army
  108. Young Men�s and Young Women�s Christian Association(YMCA & YWCA)
    � provided housing and recreation to cityyouth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
  109. Jane Addams
    � helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
  110. Hull House
    � Jane Addams�s pioneer settlement house (center for women�s activism and social reform) in Chicago
  111. Salvation Army
    � established by �General� William Booth,uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment tofamilies, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bandsin order to instill middle-class virtues
  112. Declining death rate
    � sewer systems and purification of water
  113. New immigrants vs. old immigrants
    � old immigrants fromnorthern and western Europe came seeking better life; newimmigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and oftendid not stay in the US
  114. Cult of domesticity
    � Victorian standards confined women to thehome to create an artistic environment as a statement of culturalaspirations
  115. William Marcy Tweed
    � leader of Tammany Hall, gained largesums of money through the political machine, prosecuted bySamuel Tilden and sent to jail
  116. Tammany Hall
    � Democratic political machine in NYC,�supported� immigrants and poor people of the city, who wereneeded for Democratic election victories
  117. Theodore Dreiser,
    • Sister Carrie, The Financier
    • � attackedindustrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refusedworks breaking with Victorian ideals
  118. Regionalist and naturalist writers
    � writing took a more realisticapproach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life(Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
  119. Bland-Allison Act
    (1878) � government compromised to buy andcoin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum andinflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
  120. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
    • (1890) � government to buy silver to back money
    • in addition to gold
  121. James G. Blaine
    � Republican candidate for president in 1884,quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps(many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
  122. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    � effectively ended spoils system andestablished civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
  123. Farmers� Alliance movement
    � Southern and Midwestern farmersexpressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan(cash advance on future crop � farmers had little cash flow duringthe year), criticized national banks
  124. Greenback Party
    � supported expanded money supply,health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers,granger(farmer)-supported
  125. Populist Party
    � emerged from Farmers� Alliance movement(when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denouncedEastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes;Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson
  126. Convict-lease system
    � blacks who went to prison taken out andused for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racialhierarchy
  127. Civil Rights Cases
    � Civil Rights Act of 1875 declaredunconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and hadno effect on acts of private citizens
  128. Plessy v. Ferguson
    � Supreme Court legalized the �separate butequal� philosophy
  129. Munn v. Illinois
    � private property subject to governmentregulation when property is devoted to public interest; againstrailroads
  130. Jim Crow laws
    � educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominantly in South
  131. Coxey�s Army
    � Coxey and unemployed followers marched onWashington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
  132. Panic of 1893
    � 8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads);due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression;decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland�s repeal of ShermanSilver Purchase Act
  133. William Jennings Bryan
    � repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speechagainst gold standard; Democratic candidate (1896)
  134. Free silver
    � Populists campaigned for silver-backed moneyrather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve workingconditions and exploitation of labor
  135. Triangle Shirtwaist fire
    � workers unable to escape (locked intofactory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
  136. Gifford Pinchot
    � head of federal Division of Forestry, contributedto Roosevelt�s natural conservation efforts
  137. Frederick W. Taylor,
    • Principles of Scientific Management
    • � increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewardingthose who worked fast; efficiency
  138. Industrial Workers of the World
    � supported Socialists, militantunionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics,aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas tooradical for socialist cause
  139. �Big Bill� Haywood
    � leader of IWW, from Western Federationof Miners
  140. Thorstein Veblen,
    • The Theory of the Leisure Class
    • � satirizedwealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
  141. Herbert Croly,
    • The Promise of American Life
    • � activistgovernment to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded New Republicmagazine
  142. John Dewey
    � social ideals to be encouraged in public school(stress on social interaction), learning bydoing
  143. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
    � law meant to evolve as societyevolves, opposed conservative majority
  144. Booker T. Washington
    � proponent of gradual gain of equal rightsfor African-Americans
  145. �Atlanta Compromise� speech
    � given by BTW to ease whites�fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal wasacceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
  146. WEB DuBois,
    • Souls of Black Folk
    • � opposed BTW�saccommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas
  147. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    � formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement,in response to Springfield Race Riots
  148. Muckrakers
    � uncovered the �dirt� on corruption and harshquality of city/working life; heavily criticized by TheodoreRoosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips(Senate), Aschen School (child labor � photography), massmagazines McClure�s and Collier�s
  149. Upton Sinclair,
    • The Jungle
    • � revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and PureFood and Drug Act (1906)
  150. Thomas Nast
    � political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribesto stop criticism
  151. Robert La Follette
    • � created the Wisconsin Idea
    • (as governor of Wisconsin) � regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increasedcorporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
  152. Mann Act
    � made it illegal to transport women across state bordersfor �immoral purposes,� violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/white woman)
  153. Women�s Christian Temperance Union
    � led by Francis Willard, powerful �interest group� following the civil war, urged women�ssuffrage, led to Prohibition
  154. Charlotte Perkins Gilman
    � women must gain economic rights inorder to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
  155. Northern Securities Case
    � Northern Securities Company (JPMorgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as �bad�trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
  156. Theodore Roosevelt
    � first �modern� president, moderate whosupported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassedcongressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in worldaffairs
  157. Square Deal
    � Roosevelt's plan that aimed to regulate corporations(Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins andHepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conservenatural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
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