Child Development_VB_CH13

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Arielcriv
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152848
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Child Development_VB_CH13
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2012-05-08 00:16:46
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Child Development VB CH13
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Child Development_VB_CH13
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  1. industry vs. inferiority (p. 373)
    The fourth ofErikson’s eight psychosocial crises, duringwhich children attempt to master manyskills, developing a sense of themselvesas either industrious or inferior, competentor incompetent.
  2. latency (p. 373)
    Freud’s term for middle childhood,during which children’s emotional drivesand psychosexual needs are quiet (latent).Freud thought that sexual conflicts fromearlier stages are only temporarily submerged,bursting forth again at puberty.
  3. social comparison (p. 374)
    The tendency to assessone’s abilities, achievements, social status,and other attributes by measuring themagainst those of other people, especiallyone’s peers.
  4. effortful control (p. 375)
    The ability to regulate one’semotions and actions through effort, notsimply through natural inclination.
  5. resilience (p. 377)
    The capacity to adapt well to significantadversity and to overcome seriousstress.
  6. family structure (p. 383)
    The legal and geneticrelationships among relatives living in thesame home; includes nuclear family,extended family, stepfamily, and so on.
  7. family function (p. 383)
    The way a family works tomeet the needs of its members. Childrenneed families to provide basic materialnecessities, to encourage learning, to helpthem develop self-respect, to nurturefriendships, and to foster harmony andstability.
  8. nuclear family (p. 384)
    A family that consists of afather, a mother, and their biological childrenunder age 18.
  9. single-parent family (p. 385)
    A family that consistsof only one parent and his or her biologicalchildren under age 18.
  10. extended family (p. 385)
    A family of three or moregenerations living in one household.
  11. polygamous family (p. 385)
    A family consisting ofone man, several wives, and the biologicalchildren of the man and his wives.
  12. blended family (p. 386)
    A stepparent family thatincludes children born to several families,such as the biological children from thespouses’ previous marriages and the biologicalchildren of the new couple.
  13. culture of children (p. 392)
    The particular habits,styles, and values that reflect the set ofrules and rituals that characterize childrenas distinct from adult society.
  14. aggressive-rejected (p. 395)
    Rejected by peersbecause of antagonistic, confrontationalbehavior.
  15. blended family (p. 386)
    A stepparent family thatincludes children born to several families,such as the biological children from thespouses’ previous marriages and the biologicalchildren of the new couple.
  16. culture of children (p. 392)
    The particular habits,styles, and values that reflect the set ofrules and rituals that characterize childrenas distinct from adult society.
  17. aggressive-rejected (p. 395)
    Rejected by peersbecause of antagonistic, confrontationalbehavior.
  18. withdrawn-rejected (p. 395)
    Rejected by peersbecause of timid, withdrawn, and anxiousbehavior.
  19. social cognition (p. 395)
    The ability to understandsocial interactions, including the causesand consequences of human behavior.
  20. bullying (p. 395)
    Repeated, systematic efforts toinflict harm through physical, verbal, orsocial attack on a weaker person.
  21. bully-victim (p. 396)
    Someone who attacks othersand who is attacked as well. (Also calledprovocative victims because they dothings that elicit bullying, such as stealinga bully’s pencil.)
  22. preconventional moral reasoning(p. 399)
    Kohlberg’s first level of moral reasoning,emphasizing rewards and punishments.
  23. conventional moral reasoning(p. 399)
    Kohlberg’ssecond level of moral reasoning, emphasizingsocial rules.
  24. postconventional moralreasoning (p. 399)
    Kohlberg’s third level of moral reasoning,emphasizing moral principles.

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