Neuro Test 2

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
15285
Filename:
Neuro Test 2
Updated:
2010-04-19 22:40:56
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Neuro Eyes
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Description:
Eye Diseases and Disorders
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  1. SNELLEN EYE CHART
    • MEASURES DISTANCE AT WHICH LETTERS ARE SEEN
    • -20/70 MEANS ONE SEES AT 20 FEET, WHAT SOMEONE WITH 20/20 SEES AT 70 FEET
  2. THE EXTERNAL EYE EXAM
    • PTOSIS-DROOPING OF UPPER LID
    • ENTROPIN-
    • EXTROPIN-
    • LID MARGINS-NO EDEMA, ERYTHEMA, LESIONS, SCALES, OR CRUSTS
    • CONJUCTIVIA-NO LESIONS OR DISCHARGE
    • SCLERA-OPAQUE & WHITE
  3. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (EYES)
    • DARK ROOM; PT FOCUSES ON DISTANCE OBJECTS
    • VEINS-LARGER THAN ARTERIES
    • -FOLLOW TOWARD MIDLINE
    • CUP 1/3 SIZE DISC (SHARP MARGINS)
    • MACULA-MOST LIGHT SENSITIVE
    • RETINA-GLISTENING, FREE OF LESIONS
  4. ABNORMAL FINDINGS (EYE EXAM)
    • INTRARETINAL HEMORRHAGES-RED SMUDGES
    • FLAME SHAPED LESIONS-HTN
    • LIPID DEPOSITS-YELLOW
    • COTTON WOOL SPOTS-FUZZY WHITE APPEARANCE
    • MICROANEURYSMS-RED DOTS
    • DRUSENS-MACULAR DEGENERATION
  5. SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION
    • MAGNIFIES 10-40 TIMES
    • FOR EXAMINATION OF ANTERIOR CHAMBER
    • FOR EVALUATION OF CATARACTS
  6. AMSLER GRID
    • *A TEST FOR MACULAR DEGENERATION
    • *CENTRAL FIXATION
    • * TEST EACH EYE WITH GLASSES
    • *FOCUS ON CENTRAL POINT
    • *IN MACULAR DEGENERATION SOME
    • -SQUARES FADED OR WAVY LINES
    • *USED FOR DETECTION OF EARLY S/S OF MACULAR DEGENERATION
  7. FLORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY
    • *USED TO EVALUATE MACULAR EDEMA
    • -TO IDENTIFY NEOVASCULARIAZTION
    • -GROWTH OF ABNORMAL BLOOD VESSELS
    • *DYE GIVEN IV
    • *PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN OF RETINAL VESSELS
    • *SE: GOLD TONES TO SKIN OR URINE
  8. TONOMETRY
    • *TO MEASURE IOP BY DETERMINING AMT OF PRESSURES TO FLATTEN A SMALL PORTION OF GLOBE
    • -LOCAL BEFORE
    • *NORMAL 10-21 MM/HG
    • *3 TYPES
    • -INDENTATION
    • -APPLANATION
    • -NON-CONTACT
  9. PERIMETRY TESTING
    • *TO EVALUATE FIELDS OF VISION
    • *2 METHODS OF TESTING
    • -MANUAL-USE OF MOVING OR STATIONARY TARGETS
    • -AUTOMATED-USES STATIONARY TARGETS
  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BLINDNESS
    • *REQUIRES EMOTIONAL, SOCIAL, & PHYSICAL ADAPTATION
    • *REQUIRE ACCEPTANCE OF CONDITION & RECOGNITION OF PERMANENCE
    • *STEPS OF GRIEVING PROCESS, FAMILY ALSO GRIEVES
    • POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES AFFECT REHABILITATION
  11. COMMON THREATS TO VISION--
    • REFRACTIVE ERRORS-
    • -MYOPIA-NEARSIGHTEDNESS
    • -HYPEROPIA-FARSIGHTEDNESS
    • -ASTIGMATISM-REFRACTION OF A RAY OF LIGHT IS SPREAD OVER A DIFFUSE AREA RATHER THAN SHARPLY FOCUSED ON THE RETINA
    • -PRESBYOPIA-OCCURS IN THE 40'S, INABILITY TO MAINTAIN FOCUS ON OBJECTS HELD NEAR TO THE EYE
    • -EMMETROPIA-NORMAL, EYE IS AT REST
  12. OCULAR INJURIES
    • -USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD INJURIES.
    • -STABILIZE BEFORE CONDUCTING OCULAR EXAM
    • -INSPECT FOR POSSIBLE FRACTURES ESP. WITH BLUNT TRAUMA
    • -DETERMINE EXTENT OF INJURY, VISUAL ACUITY ASAP
    • -MAJOR INJURIES: SOFT GLOBE, PROLAPSING TISSUE, HEMORRHAGE OR LOSS OF RED REFLEX
  13. SOFT TISSUE INJURY
    S/S: REDNESS, ECCHYMOSIS, LID SWELLING, PROTOSIS, CONTUSIONS, SUBCONJUCTIVAL HEMORRHAGE

    TX: CLEANSE AND REPAIR OF WOUNDS; COLD COMPRESSES FOLLOWED BY WARM; I & D OF HEMATOMAS

    PENETRATING INJURIES-OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE

    VISUAL LOSS AFTER INJURY OFTEN IRREVERSIBLE
  14. FOREIGN BODIES
    • *CT SCAN TO IDENTIFY OBJECT
    • *METAL OBJECT-NO MRI
    • CULTURES AND ANTIBIOTICS AS INDICATED
  15. OCULAR TRAUMA
    • -LEADING C/O BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN, TEENS, & YOUNG ADULTS
    • -CAUSES-OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES, SPORTS, BOXING, ASSAULT, MVAS, AND WAR
    • -INTERVENTIONS- (NON-OPHTHAMOLOGIST)
    • -CHEMICAL BURNS-IRRIGATE WITH NS OR H20
    • - FOREIGN BODY- DONT ATTEMPT TO REMOVE
    • - APPLY PATCH AND METAL SHIELD OR STIFF PAPER CUP
  16. MANAGEMENT (INITIAL)
    • -CHEMICAL-IRRIGATON WITH NS OR TAP WATER
    • -RUPTURERED GLOBE-NO EYE OR GTTS OR OINTMENTS
    • -AVOID FURTHER MANIPULATION
    • - IV ANTIBIOTICS & TETANUS TOXOID, ANALGESICS, AND ANTIEMETICS
  17. CORNEAL ABRASION, SUPERFICIAL
    • -REMOVE FOREIGN BODY; ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENT; PATCH EYE; AVOID ANESTHETIC DROPS-MASKS FURTHER DAMAGE
    • -CHECK FOR S/S OF INECTION UNTIL HEALED
    • -CONTACT LENS CAN CAUSE SEVERE PAIN, PHOTOPHOBIA
    • -CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DEFECTS-ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENT; NO STEROIDS
  18. PENETRATING INJURIES/BLUNT TRAUMA

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