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adolescent egocentrism(p. 443)
A characteristic ofadolescent thinking that leads young people(ages 10 to 13) to focus on themselvesto the exclusion of others.
personal fable (p. 444)
An aspect of adolescent egocentrismcharacterized by an adolescent’sbelief that his or her thoughts, feelings,and experiences are unique, more wonderfulor awful than anyone else’s.
invincibility fable (p. 444)
An adolescent’s egocentricconviction that he or she cannot beovercome or even harmed by anything thatmight defeat a normal mortal, such asunprotected sex, drug abuse, or highspeeddriving.
imaginary audience (p. 445)
The other people who,in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, arewatching and taking note of his or herappearance, ideas, and behavior. Thisbelief makes many teenagers very selfconscious.
formal operational thought(p. 446)
In Piaget’s theory,the fourth and final stage of cognitivedevelopment, characterized by more systematiclogical thinking and by the abilityto understand and systematically manipulateabstract concepts.
hypothetical thought (p. 448)
Reasoning thatincludes propositions and possibilities thatmay not reflect reality.
deductive reasoning (p. 449)
Reasoning from ageneral statement, premise, or principle,through logical steps, to figure out (deduce)specifics. (Also called top-down reasoning.)
inductive reasoning (p. 449)
Reasoning from one ormore specific experiences or facts to reach(induce) a general conclusion. (Also calledbottom-up reasoning.)
dual-process model (p. 450)
The notion that twonetworks exist within the human brain,one for emotional and one for analyticalprocessing of stimuli.
intuitive thought (p. 450)
Thought that arises froman emotion or a hunch, beyond rationalexplanation, and is influenced by pastexperiences and cultural assumptions.
analytic thought (p. 450)
Thought that results fromanalysis, such as a systematic ranking ofpros and cons, risks and consequences,possibilities and facts. Analytic thoughtdepends on logic and rationality.
sunk cost fallacy (p. 452)
The mistaken belief thatif money, time, or effort that cannot berecovered (a “sunk cost,” in economicterms) has already been invested in someendeavor, then more should be invested inan effort to reach the goal. Because of thisfallacy, people spend money continuing totry to fix a “lemon” of a car or sendingmore troops to fight a losing battle.
base rate neglect (p. 452)
A common fallacy inwhich a person ignores the overall frequencyof some behavior or characteristic(called the base rate) in making a decision.For example, a person might bet on a“lucky” lottery number without consideringthe odds that that number will beselected.
secondary education (p. 455)
Literally the periodafter primary education (elementary orgrade school) and before tertiary education(college). It usually occurs from about age12 to 18, although there is some variationby school and by nation.
middle school (p. 455)
A school for children in thegrades between elementary and highschool. Middle school usually begins withgrade 5 or 6 and ends with grade 8.
digital divide (p. 459)
The gap between people whohave access to computers and those whodo not, often a gap between rich and poor.In the United States and most other developednations, this gap has now beenbridged as computers have becomealmost universally present in schoolsand libraries.
cyberbullying (p. 461)
Bullying that occurs whenone person spreads insults or rumorsabout another by means of e-mails, textmessages, or anonymous phone calls orposts embarrassing videos of the victimon the Internet. (The name derives fromthe fact that such bullying occurs in cyberspace,the hypothetical environment inwhich digitized information is communicatedover computer networks.)
high-stakes test (p. 464)
An evaluation that is criticalin determining success or failure. If a singletest determines whether a student willgraduate or be promoted, that is a highstakestest.
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