BIO135 - Apoptosis Notes.txt

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lukemlj
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152855
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BIO135 - Apoptosis Notes.txt
Updated:
2012-05-08 00:53:31
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BIO135 Apoptosis Notes
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BIO135 - Apoptosis Notes
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  1. What are the four types of cell death?
    • Programmed
    • Necrosis
    • Apoptosis
    • Lysosomal/TypeII/autophagic
  2. Describe programmed cell death.
    • Embryonic.
    • Requires gene activation of specific genes
    • Prevention of auto-immune disease
  3. Describe necrosis.
    • Uncontrolled cell death.
    • Protein precipitation.
    • Leads to inflammation in tissue.
    • ATP loss.
    • Swelling of cells and organelles (burst).
  4. Describe apoptosis.
    Caspase-dependent.
  5. Describe lysosomal/typeII/autophagic cell death.
    • Caspase-independent.
    • Formation of autophagic vessicles.
    • "intermediate" step in some cases.
  6. Cleavage of ___ can ___ apoptotic pathways.
    • Caspases
    • activate
  7. When both pro- and anti-apoptotic signals are present ___.
    Stronger signalling "wins"
  8. What are some characteristics of apoptotis/cell death?
    • Cell shrinkage
    • Membrane blebbing
    • Chromatin fragmentation
    • Leaky mitochondria (Cyt C)
    • Nuclear condensation
    • Flipping of phosphatidyl serine to outside.
    • Formation of apoptotic bodies.
  9. What are the two basic apoptotic pathways?
    • Extrinsic - death receptor
    • Intrinsic - mitochondrial
  10. Describe extrinsic pathway.
    • Ligand binds to death receptor (dimer).
    • Cytoplasmic side binds to FADD
    • Procaspase 8/10 is cut to caspase 8/10 (active form).
    • Caspase 8/10 activates procaspase 3 -> apoptosis,
    • and Bid (which can lead to intrinsic).
  11. Describe intrinsic pathway.
    • Caspase 8 cuts BID.
    • Bid sends Bax to mitochondial membrane to dimerize with Bak.
    • Mitochondia is damaged/dimerized(Bax/Bak) - releases Cyt C
    • Cyt C cuts procaspase 9 to caspase 9 (active form).
    • Caspase 9 and Apaf-1 bind to from Apoptosome (7-er)
    • Apoptosome activates caspase3 -> apoptosis.
  12. Describe Flip.
    • Cut to Flips - survival.
    • Cut to FlipL - high concentration apoptotic.
    • low concentration survival.
  13. Pathways are dependent on ___.
    Cell type
  14. The BCL2 family including ___, can be ___ or ___.
    • Bax, Bak, Bid, etc.
    • Survival
    • Apoptotic
  15. Integrin binding to ECM leads to ___ including what three proteins?
    • Survival pathway.
    • JNK, AKT, ERK
  16. Pro-caspases are activated by ___.
    BCl-2 proteins
  17. Study of apoptosis has led to therapies that might be helpful in treating ___.
    Cancer

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