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2012-05-19 00:02:26
amphibians mammals hominids American River college campbell reece 6th edition

campbell and reece 6th edition chp 19
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  1. ex of amphibians
    salamenders, frogs, caecilians
  2. phylum for salamenders
  3. class for caecilians
  4. How do each of three tetrapod groups of amphibian move on land
    • salamenders walk side to side by bending their bodies
    • frogs: use their hind legs to hop
    • caecilians they are legless and can burrow
  5. why do frogs lay eggs in water
    the frogs eggs need moisture to prevent them from drying out.
  6. what is the larval stage of frog called
  7. tadpoles have (gills/ lungs)
  8. frogs have(lungs/gills)
  9. Frogs can be only aquactic or only terrrestrial(T/F)
  10. Which frogs are called toads
    Toads live on land theey do not live on water.
  11. how do amphibians living in damp habitats breath
    Frogs are amphibians. They can breathe using their lungs* on land, or absorb oxygen through their skins when underwater (this is called cutaneous respiration). Lacking diaphragm muscles, frogs on land may be said to "swallow" air : they inhale air through their nostrils, inflating skin sacs in their throats, then press down with the mouth muscles to force it into the lungs.
  12. Amniotic
    A thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird, or reptile. It is filled with a fluid in which the embryo is suspended.
  13. amniotic egg
    the embryo is within the amniotic sac which is filled with fliud
  14. Reptiles-ex
    lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and the extinct dinosaurs
  15. which is the most diverse reptile
  16. Name two other adaptations that reptiles have for living terrestrially.
    • reptiles have skin that is covered by scales that are water proofed.the tough keratin protein this keeps the body from drying out.
    • Also reptiles cannot breath through their dry skin , they have a rib cage that helps ventilate the lungs inorder to get oxygen through the lungs.
  17. Why is ectothermic a more appropriate term then “cold blooded” for non-bird reptiles?
    Reptiles cannot produce their own body heat even though they can regulate their own body temperature.So as they absorb their heat rather than generate their own ht they are called ectothermic
  18. bearded australian outback is an ex of Eco or endothermic
  19. how does bearded australian outback get its heat
    in the morning it sits on a warm rock enjoying the sun. if it gets too hot it moves to a shaded spot.
  20. Deinonychus are (amphibians/reptiles) who are (frogs/dinosaurs)
    reptiles, dinosaurs
  21. Which reptiles, living and extinct, are (or were) endothermic, and what does endothermic mean?
    Deinonychus, other small dinosaurs and birds are endothermic. It uses heat to generated by metabolism to keep itself warm.
  22. Briefly describe five features of birds that give them the ability to fly.
    reduced wght, edothermic with high metabolism, efficient respiratory and circulatory system, good eyesight, and feathered wings that are shaped like air foils
  23. Who has more efficient lungs(birds or mammals)
  24. 2 lineages of amniotes
    reptiles and mammals
  25. 3 main grps of living mammals
    monotremes, eutharians, marsupials
  26. placental mammals are called
  27. marsupials arose from
  28. eutherians are
    placental mammals.
  29. mammalian hallmark features
    hair and mammary glands
  30. What is the function of the hair in mammals?
    helps to insulate the body and warm body temperature
  31. Which of these are the living example of a Monotreme mammal? (duck billed platypus, echidnas( spiny anteater), kangaroo, monkeys)
    duck billed platypus, spiny anteater
  32. which is the only group of egg laying mammals
  33. From where do the young ones emerge in the group of monotremes
  34. Marsupials are egg laying, placental , pouched mammals ?
    pouched mammals
  35. What are the main reproductive characteristics of marsupials
    marsupials are pouched mammals whose offspringsare embryonic. They will complete their development in the pouch while attached to the nipple.
  36. what is the pouch in marsupials called
  37. Why are Marsupials so diverse in Australia?
    After the continental drift all marsupials got concentrated in Australia. So they took over all the ecological niches in that continent and thus got diversified
  38. How is a Eutherian different from a Marsupial, in terms of reproduction?
    Eutherians are placental mammals. the young one completes its embryonic development in the uterus that is attached to the placenta.
  39. ex of eutherians
    zebra, rodents, elephants, rabbits, dogs, whales, bats, humans and cows.
  40. what order do humans belong to
  41. lemurs, tarseirs, monkeys apes are
  42. we belong to the chimpanzee / ape/ monkey group?
  43. Which primates would be considered Anthropoids?
    monkeys and apes
  44. Which primates are considered Hominoids, (Apes)
  45. How many species of extinct hominids have we found fossils from?