Final

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rhondam08
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152874
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Final
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2012-05-08 07:50:45
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Endocrine
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  1. What is a hormone?
    a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland and transported by the blood
  2. How do the exocrine glands differ from the endocrine glands?
    • endocrine are ductless
    • exocrine have ducts
  3. By what method are hormones transported?
    through the blood
  4. Hormones derived from cholesterol:
    Sources of these hormones?
    • steroids
    • adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes
  5. The classification of hormones produced by the other endocrine glands:
    • non steroids
    • ex: thyroxin
  6. What is the relationship between target cells and hormones?
    target cells have specific receptors for a specific hormone
  7. Why arent the nontarget cells affected by hormones along with the target cells?
    they dont have receptors for the hormones
  8. Explain why hormones do not affect just any target cell:
    target cells have specific receptors for a particular hormone
  9. The technical term for the pituitart gland:
    The anterior lobe:
    The posterior lobe:
    • hypophysis
    • adenohypophysis
    • neurohypophysis
  10. List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary:
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Growth hormaone (GH)
    • Somatotropin (STH)
    • Adrenocorrticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  11. List the hormones of the posterior pituitary:
    none
  12. The two endocrine glands under the influence of neural impulses are:
    adrenal medulla and pituitary
  13. Which type of feedback usually regualtes hormone production?
    negative
  14. Using TSH and thyroxine, explaine negative feedback control using specific endocrine glands, secretion amts, etc.
  15. What is the function of STH? What is STH?
    • promotes growth of body cells and cell division
    • somatotropic hormone
  16. A hyposecretion of STH in childhood:
    Dwarfism
  17. A hypersecrion in childhood of STH:
    Gigantism
  18. Source of ACTH:
    Action of ACTH:
    • Adenohypophysis
    • stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
  19. How does thyrotropic hormone differ from thyroxine?
  20. Explain how hypo- and hypersecretion of TSH and thyroxine differ:
  21. Source of FSH:
    Source of LH:
    Source of estrogen:
    Source of progesterone:
    Source of testosterone:
    • pituitary
    • pituitary
    • ovary
    • corpus leutum of ovaries
    • testes
  22. Helps initiate and maintain milk production after pregnancy:
    prolactin
  23. Stimulates the development of follicles and estrogen secretion:
    FSH
  24. Hormone which prepares the uterus for embryo:
    LH
  25. Hormone which stimulates the male testes to secrete testosterone:
    FSH or LH
  26. Hormone which controls metabolism:
    thyroxine
  27. The cause of cretinism:
    hyposecretion of thyroxin before birth
  28. The cause of acromegaly:
    hypersecrition of GH in adulthood
  29. The cause for Graves' disease:
    hypersecretion of thyroxin in adulthood
  30. Where are hormones produced by the hypothalamus stored?
    neurohypophysis
  31. Decreases water excretion by the kidneys:
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  32. What is myxedema?
    subcutaneous swelling, hairloss, low body temp, dry skin, muscle weakness
  33. Source of ADH:
    hypothalamus
  34. Explain how calcitonin and parathormone differ in sources and secretions:
    • Calcitonin- thyroid gland, decreases blood calcium levels
    • Parathormone- parathyroid gland, increases blood calcium levels
  35. Two hormones produced by the pancreas with opposite effects:
    Glucagon and insulin
  36. Site of glycogen conversion to glucose:
    liver
  37. Hypoglycemia results from hypersecretion of _____.
    insulin
  38. The entry of glucose into the cells has what effect on blood glucose level?
    decreases
  39. Why do diabetics have less energy than nondiabetics even though their blood glucose level is higher?
    glucose is out in the blood and not in your cells so no ATP is being produced and used
  40. Two sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex:
    • adrenal estrogens
    • adrenal androgens
  41. Another name for adrenaline:
    Source of adrenaline:
    • epinephrine
    • adrenal medulla
  42. Explain how aldosterone elevates blood pressure:
    increase fluid retention and arterial pressure
  43. Which division of the ANS is associated with the adrenaline secretion:
    sympathetic
  44. Hormones regulating the way electrolytes are processed in the body:
    mineralcorticoids
  45. Hormone from adrenal cortex that influences food metabolism:
    glucocorticoid
  46. Which love of the hypohysis is directly connected to the hypothalamus?
    neurohypophysis
  47. How is the adenohypophysis connected to the hypothalamus?
    network of capillaries and veins connecting thru a portal system
  48. What is the pituitary portal system?
    pituitary-->veins-->capillaries-->arteries to be secreted into the cells
  49. Steroid hormone of the ovaries secreted by corpus luteum which maintains the uterine lining for a successful pregnancy:
    progesterone
  50. Steroid hormone which promotes the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics:
    estrogen
  51. The hormone which promotes growth of body cells and cell division:
    STH
  52. The source of ACTH is _________.
    adenohypophysis
  53. The thyrotropic hormone is secreted by:
    adenohypophysis
  54. Thyroxine is secreted by which gland:
    thyroid gland
  55. List the sources of hormones derived from cholesterol:
    adrenal cortex, ovaries, and testes
  56. Which two systems function to achieve and maintain homeostasis?
    immune and endocrine
  57. List the ten glands of the endocrine system:
    pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, ovary, testis, pancreas, parathyroid, hypothalamus, kidney
  58. Name the hormone controlling the action of gluconeogensis in the liver:
    cortisol
  59. Name the hormone produced by the liver:
    none
  60. The function of adipocytes:
  61. Which hormone is the most important regulator of electrolyte concentration in extracellular fluid?
    aldosterone
  62. Which structures are the major targets of growth hormone?
    skeletal muscle and bone
  63. Which endocrine gland produces hormones involved in the immune response?
    thymus
  64. Which organ synthesizes ANP?
    heart
  65. Which of these hormones is not a steroid? aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, epinephrine
    epinephrine
  66. What name is given to chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body?
    hormone
  67. The gland influencing day/night cycles is ________.
    pineal gland
  68. Name a gonadotropin-releasing hormone:
    GnRH
  69. Name two gonadotropins that regulate the function of the gonads:
    FSH and LH
  70. Which endocrine gland decreases in size and function with age?
    thymus
  71. Name the hormone secreted by the kidneys and give its function:
    • Erythropoietin
    • stimulate production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
  72. Give the location for enteroendocrine cells and their function:
  73. How do corticosteroid hormones function:
  74. The gland embedded inside the thyroid _______.
    parathyroid
  75. Beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce ______.
    insulin
  76. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets produce ________.
    glucagon
  77. Which element is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine?
    iodine
  78. How do the glucocorticoid hormones function?
    promote gluconeogensis; hyperglycemia depress inflammatory and immune responses
  79. Do the coditions of diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus both involve the synthesis of insulin? ______ Explain: ________
    • No
    • Diabetes insipidus is a deficiency of ADH
    • Diabetes mellitus is sugar diabetes
  80. A high metabolic rate would probably indicate a malfunctioning of which gland?
    thyroid
  81. What action does arterial natriuretic peptide hormone have on urinary system?
    increase urinary secretion of Na
  82. Lacks insulin activity: type I or type II diabetes
    type II
  83. Prime metabolic effect of cortisol:
    gluconeogenesis
  84. Which endocrine structure develops from the nervous system?
    posterior pituitary
  85. Hormone raising blood sugar levels: ______
    Hormone decreasing blood sugar levels: _____
    • glucagon
    • insulin
  86. Give the source of secretion for the following hormones:
    ACTH: ___ FSH: ___ LH: ___
    All three secreted from adenohypophysis
  87. Peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation producing _____.
    mRNA
  88. Name the larges pure endocrine gland:
    thyroid
  89. Give examples of positive and negative feedback regulation involving hormone produciton:
    positive feedback loops exaggerate deviation rather than reverse it negative feedback control usually regulates hormone production

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