Card Set Information
What is a hormone?
a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland and transported by the blood
How do the exocrine glands differ from the endocrine glands?
endocrine are ductless
exocrine have ducts
By what method are hormones transported?
through the blood
Hormones derived from cholesterol:
Sources of these hormones?
adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes
The classification of hormones produced by the other endocrine glands:
What is the relationship between target cells and hormones?
target cells have specific receptors for a specific hormone
Why arent the nontarget cells affected by hormones along with the target cells?
they dont have receptors for the hormones
Explain why hormones do not affect just any target cell:
target cells have specific receptors for a particular hormone
The technical term for the pituitart gland:
The anterior lobe:
The posterior lobe:
List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary:
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Growth hormaone (GH)
Adrenocorrticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
List the hormones of the posterior pituitary:
The two endocrine glands under the influence of neural impulses are:
adrenal medulla and pituitary
Which type of feedback usually regualtes hormone production?
Using TSH and thyroxine, explaine negative feedback control using specific endocrine glands, secretion amts, etc.
What is the function of STH? What is STH?
promotes growth of body cells and cell division
A hyposecretion of STH in childhood:
A hypersecrion in childhood of STH:
Source of ACTH:
Action of ACTH:
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
How does thyrotropic hormone differ from thyroxine?
Explain how hypo- and hypersecretion of TSH and thyroxine differ:
Source of FSH:
Source of LH:
Source of estrogen:
Source of progesterone:
Source of testosterone:
corpus leutum of ovaries
Helps initiate and maintain milk production after pregnancy:
Stimulates the development of follicles and estrogen secretion:
Hormone which prepares the uterus for embryo:
Hormone which stimulates the male testes to secrete testosterone:
FSH or LH
Hormone which controls metabolism:
The cause of cretinism:
hyposecretion of thyroxin before birth
The cause of acromegaly:
hypersecrition of GH in adulthood
The cause for Graves' disease:
hypersecretion of thyroxin in adulthood
Where are hormones produced by the hypothalamus stored?
Decreases water excretion by the kidneys:
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is myxedema?
subcutaneous swelling, hairloss, low body temp, dry skin, muscle weakness
Source of ADH:
Explain how calcitonin and parathormone differ in sources and secretions:
Calcitonin- thyroid gland, decreases blood calcium levels
Parathormone- parathyroid gland, increases blood calcium levels
Two hormones produced by the pancreas with opposite effects:
Glucagon and insulin
Site of glycogen conversion to glucose:
Hypoglycemia results from hypersecretion of _____.
The entry of glucose into the cells has what effect on blood glucose level?
Why do diabetics have less energy than nondiabetics even though their blood glucose level is higher?
glucose is out in the blood and not in your cells so no ATP is being produced and used
Two sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex:
Another name for adrenaline:
Source of adrenaline:
Explain how aldosterone elevates blood pressure:
increase fluid retention and arterial pressure
Which division of the ANS is associated with the adrenaline secretion:
Hormones regulating the way electrolytes are processed in the body:
Hormone from adrenal cortex that influences food metabolism:
Which love of the hypohysis is directly connected to the hypothalamus?
How is the adenohypophysis connected to the hypothalamus?
network of capillaries and veins connecting thru a portal system
What is the pituitary portal system?
pituitary-->veins-->capillaries-->arteries to be secreted into the cells
Steroid hormone of the ovaries secreted by corpus luteum which maintains the uterine lining for a successful pregnancy:
Steroid hormone which promotes the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics:
The hormone which promotes growth of body cells and cell division:
The source of ACTH is _________.
The thyrotropic hormone is secreted by:
Thyroxine is secreted by which gland:
List the sources of hormones derived from cholesterol:
adrenal cortex, ovaries, and testes
Which two systems function to achieve and maintain homeostasis?
immune and endocrine
List the ten glands of the endocrine system:
pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, ovary, testis, pancreas, parathyroid, hypothalamus, kidney
Name the hormone controlling the action of gluconeogensis in the liver:
Name the hormone produced by the liver:
The function of adipocytes:
Which hormone is the most important regulator of electrolyte concentration in extracellular fluid?
Which structures are the major targets of growth hormone?
skeletal muscle and bone
Which endocrine gland produces hormones involved in the immune response?
Which organ synthesizes ANP?
Which of these hormones is not a steroid? aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, epinephrine
What name is given to chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body?
The gland influencing day/night cycles is ________.
Name a gonadotropin-releasing hormone:
Name two gonadotropins that regulate the function of the gonads:
FSH and LH
Which endocrine gland decreases in size and function with age?
Name the hormone secreted by the kidneys and give its function:
stimulate production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
Give the location for enteroendocrine cells and their function:
How do corticosteroid hormones function:
The gland embedded inside the thyroid _______.
Beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce ______.
Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets produce ________.
Which element is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine?
How do the glucocorticoid hormones function?
promote gluconeogensis; hyperglycemia depress inflammatory and immune responses
Do the coditions of diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus both involve the synthesis of insulin? ______ Explain: ________
Diabetes insipidus is a deficiency of ADH
Diabetes mellitus is sugar diabetes
A high metabolic rate would probably indicate a malfunctioning of which gland?
What action does arterial natriuretic peptide hormone have on urinary system?
increase urinary secretion of Na
Lacks insulin activity: type I or type II diabetes
Prime metabolic effect of cortisol:
Which endocrine structure develops from the nervous system?
Hormone raising blood sugar levels: ______
Hormone decreasing blood sugar levels: _____
Give the source of secretion for the following hormones:
ACTH: ___ FSH: ___ LH: ___
All three secreted from adenohypophysis
Peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation producing _____.
Name the larges pure endocrine gland:
Give examples of positive and negative feedback regulation involving hormone produciton:
positive feedback loops exaggerate deviation rather than reverse it negative feedback control usually regulates hormone production