Endocrine system

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Endocrine system
2012-05-11 11:32:59
Final Exam

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  1. What are the 2 major intergrating systems?
    • Nervous system
    • Endocrine system
  2. Release hormones into the interrnal environment (body fluids)
    Endocrine glands
  3. Secrete to the outside environment, through ducts which lead to body surfaces.
  4. Steroid hormones are formed from _____.
  5. Name 4 types of non steroid hormones?
    • amines
    • peptides
    • proteins
    • glycoproteins
  6. Amines steroid/non-steroid hormones and are formed from _____.
    • non steroid hormones
    • Amino acids
  7. Peptide are steroid / non-steroid hormones and are formed from _____.
    • non-steroid
    • Amino acids
  8. Proteins are non-steroid/steroid hormones and are formed from _____.
    • non-steroid
    • amino acids
  9. Glycoproteins are non-steroid/steroid hormones and are fromed from _____ and _____.
    • non-steroid
    • Protein and carbohydrates
  10. Steroid hormones are _____ in water and _____ in lipids.
    • Insoluble
    • soluble
  11. _____ and _____ hormones are soluble in the lipids that make up the bulk of cell membranes. For this reason they can diffuse into cells relatively easily and may enter any cell in the body.
    Steroid and thyroid hormones
  12. Put in order- steroid hormones:
    1.Steroid hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA and promotes transcription of messenger RNA.
    2.Newly synthesized proteins produce hormones specific effects.
    3. Steroid hormone diffuses through target cell membrane and enters nucleus.
    4.Hormone combines with a receptor molecule
    5. Endocrine glands secretes steroid hormone. 6.Messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis.
  13. In steroid hormone action _____ binds to DNA and promotes transcription of messenger RNA.
    hormone-receptor complex
  14. Non-steroid hormone action put in order:
    1.These enzymes activate protein substrates in the cell that change metabolic processes.
    2.Adenylate cyclase molecules are activated within target cell's membrane.
    3. Cellular changes produce the hormone's effects.
    4. Endocrine gland secretes nonsteroid hormone.
    5.Hormone combines with receptor site on membrane of its target cell, Activating G protein
    6.Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP
    7.Body fluid carries hormone to its target cell.
    8.Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.
  15. Non-steroid:
    What activates G protein?
    hormone receptor complex
  16. Non-steroid:
    Adenylate cyclase converts _____ into _____.
    • ATP
    • cyclic AMP
  17. Non-steroid:
    What happens in the conversion of ATP into c-AMP?
    2 phosphates are removed
  18. Non-steroid:
    Cyclic AMP activates _____.
    Protein kinases
  19. Non-steroid:
    Protein kinases activate _____ in the cell that change metabolic processes.
    • Protein substrate
    • substrate- thing that enzyme break down
  20. What are the 2 inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus?
    • Somatostatin
    • prolactin release inhibiting hormone
  21. What 2 hormones come from the hypothalamus to either stimulate or inhibit growth hormone?
    • Growth hormone releasing hormone
    • somatostatin
  22. What 3 things does growth hormone stimulate or inhibit the growth of?
    • Bone
    • muscle
    • adipose tissue
  23. what does prolactin do?
    Promotes milk production
  24. What are the 2 hormones that come from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland that stimulate or inhibit prolactin production?
    • Prolactin releasing factor
    • prolactin release inhibiting hormone
  25. Where does the hormone prolactin go to from the anterior pituitary gland?
    Mammary gland
  26. Effects thyroid:
    The hypothalamus releases _____into the anterior pituitary gland and anterior pituitary gland secrecretes _____ into the blood stream to effect the thyroid.
    • Thyrotropin releasing hormone
    • thyroid stimulating
  27. Adrenal cortex:
    The hypothalamus releases _____ in response to decreased concentrations of adrenal cortical hormones. The anterior pituitary gland secretes _____ to the adrenal cortex in response to stress.
    • Corticotropin releasing hormone
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
  28. Gonadotropins:
    _____controls growth and development of follicles that house egg cells in the ovaries. It also stimulates the follicular cells to secrete female hormones called _____. In males this hormone stimaltes production of _____ in testes.
    • Follicle stimulating hormone
    • estrogen
    • sperm cells
  29. Gonadotropins:
    _____ promotes secretion of sex hormones in both male and female and is essential for the release of egg cells in the ovaries
    Leteinizing hormone
  30. Starting at puberty the hypothalamus secretes _____to the anterior pituitary gland.
    Gonadotropin releasing hormone
  31. Gonadotropin:
    The anterior pituitary will release _____ or _____ to the male and female gonads.
    • Follicle stimulating hormone
    • luteinizing hormone
  32. The pituitary gland sits ontop of the _____ which is part of the _____ bone.
    • sella turcica
    • sphenoid bone
  33. Anti-diuretic hormone and oxytocin come from where?
    Posterior pituitary gland
  34. Causes kidneys to reduce water excretion; in high concentration, raises blood pressure.
    Antidiuretic hormone
  35. Contracts muscles in uterine wall and those associated with milk secreting glands.
  36. What are the 3 hormones release by the thyroid gland?
    • thyroxine
    • triiodothyronine
    • calcitonin
  37. Hormones of the thyroid gland:
    _____ Increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; increases rate of protein synthesis; accelerates growth; stimulates activity in the nervous system.
    _____ does the same job but is 5 times more potent.
    • Thyroxine
    • Triiodothyronine
  38. Hormones of the thyroid gland:
    Lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of calcium andphosphate ions from bones abd by increasing the rate at which calcium and phosphate ions are deposited in bones.
  39. Autoantibodies against self bind to thyroid stimulating hormone receptors on thyroid cell membranes, mimicking action of THS, overstimulating gland (Hyperthyroidism) this is an exothalmic goider
    Graves disease
  40. High metabolic rate , sensitivity to heat, restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes, goiter.
  41. antobodies against self attack thyroid cells, producing hypothyroidism
    Hashimoto disease
  42. stunned growth, abnormal bone formation , mental retardation, low body temperature, sluggish
    Cretinism , Infantile hypothyroidism
  43. Low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, sluggishniess, poor appetitie, swollen tissues, mental dullness
    Myxedema- adult hypothyroidism
  44. deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine dificiency
    Simple goiter
  45. Respoinsible for increasing calcium absorptiom in small intestine.
    Parathyroid glands
  46. The parathyroid hormone stimulates calcium into what 3 organs? how is it done?
    • Bone release calcium
    • kidneys conserve calcium
    • Intestines absorbs calcium
  47. Overproducing PTH, Increased PTH secretion overstimulates osteoclasts causing a tumor.
  48. Muscle cramps and seizures. Decreased PTH secreations reduces osteoclast activity diminishing blood calcium ion concentration.
  49. What are the 3 hormoines of the adrenal cortex?
    • Cortisol
    • aldosterone
    • adrenal androgens
  50. What releases aldosterone?
    angiostensin II
  51. Helps regulate the concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving sodium ions and excreating potassium ions.
  52. Decreases protein synthesis, increases fatty acid releases, and stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates
    stress hormone
  53. Suppliment sex hormones from the gonads; may be converted into estrogens.
    Adrenal androgens
  54. what are the 3 hormones of the pancreatic islets?
    • Glucagon
    • insulin
    • somatostatin
  55. Stimulates liver to break down glycogen and convert noncarbohydrates into glucose; stimulates breakdown of fats
  56. Promotes formation of glycogen from glucose, inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose; and enhances movements of glucose through adipose and muscle cell membranes, decreasing blood glucose concentration; promotes transport of amino acids into cells; enhances synthesis of protein and fats
  57. Helps regulate carbohydrates