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Why did northern manufacturers demand a tariff?
wanted to protect industries from foreign competitors
What did the Tariff of Abominations do? (2)
put high tax on imports
was also a tax on raw materials
How was the South taxed twice by the Tariff of Abominations? (2)
taxed on cotton they exported
taxed on goods they imported
What did the States' Rights Doctrine state?
that since the states had formed the national government, state power should be greater than federal power
Who wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest?
John C. Calhoun
How did John C. Calhoun feel about nullification?
believed states had the right to nullify national laws that they judged to be unconstitutional
What caused the Webster-Hayne Debate?
Tariff of Abominations, the Nullification Crisis and States' Rights
What did the Nullification Act state?
-stated the 1828 and 1832 traiffs were unconstitutional and that SC threatened to withdraw from the Union if military froce was used to cllect duties
What did the Force Bill passed by Jackson/Congress do?
approved use of Army to enforce national laws in SC
-led U.S. Army in SC to enforce national laws
General Winfield Scott
Who proposed the Comromise Tariff of 1833?
What the Compromise Tariff of 1833 do?
cut tax on cotton exports by 50% from 1833-1842
Why did Jackson oppose the 2nd B.U.S.? (6)
-Felt bank was unconstitutional
-Felt bank only helped wealthy, not poor common men
-Wanted states to have more power over banking system
-Felt bank had to much economic and political power
-Bank was blamed for Panic of 1819
-Jackson lost $$ in bank deals during Panic
-Director of 2nd B.U.S.
-tried to renew banks charter in 1832
Who won the Election of 1832?
How did Jackson officially "kill" the National bank?
moved all national government $$ into state banks
What did Nicholas Biddle do in response to Jackson's "killing" of the national bank?
since common men now went to state banks to get loans, Biddle made it harder for common men to get loans
What were the results of Jackson's War on the Bank? (4)
-state banks issued lots of paper $$ and gave lots of east loans, which was used by land speculators in West
-U.S. economy was good temporarily with all $$ printed and loaned by state banks
-Martin Van Buren won Election of 1836
-Led to Panic of 1837
What caused the Panic of 1837?
- result of increase in $$ supply from state banks
-In 1836, Jackson tried to stop inflation-required people to pay loans and buy gov't land in specie
-State banks ran out of specie-went out of business
- -Land speclators and small farmers in West couldn't repay loans and lost land
- -In North, less demand for factory goods
- -In South, less demand for cotton
-In 1836, the wheat crop failed-more farmers lost land
-in 1836, depression in Gr. Britain-lowered demand for southern cotton
What were the results of the Panic of 1837? (2)
-90% of businesses in East failed
What did Van Buren do about the Panic of 1837?
-believed economy would fix itself
-felt gov't didn't need to help people during Panic
Who formed the Whig Party?
-Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun
What did the Whig want? (2)
- a weaker president and a stronger Congress
-Wanted National gov't to help the economy
Who was the Democrats presidential candidate in the Election of 1840?
Martin Van Buren
Who was the Whigs presidential candidate in the Election of 1840?
William Henry Harrison
What was John Tyler's nickname?
What did the Webster-Ashburn Treaty do?
-in 1842 between U.S. and GB, which settled Aroostook War
What was the importance of the Webster-Ashburn Treaty?
-defined border for British Canada and U.S. Maine/Minnesota
-a fight between lumberjacks over timberland
What did the Treaty of Wang Hya do?
-opened diplomatic realtions and trade between U.S. and China for 1st time
What was Tyler's foreign policy? (2)
-refused to support a new National Bank
-Vetoed all laws for internal improvements