Intro A & P Final Test Review
Card Set Information
Intro A & P Final Test Review
Intro Final Test Review Fultz
Intro A & P Final Test Review (Fultz)
A line dividing the right side of the body from the left is the _____.
A term meaning closer to the midline is ___.
___ literally means closer to the boney housing around the brain.
___ literally means tail (opposite of cranial).
The stomach is ___ to the intestines (Closer to the origin).
The stomach is ___ to the esophagus (Farther from the origin).
___ literally means closer to the nose or front end.
___literally means closer to the rear end or tail end.
___ means toward the back (think of the fin on the back of a shark).
The neck is ___ to the chest (closer to the head).
Cranial or Cephalic
The knee is ___ to the ankle (closer to the origin).
The hand is ___ to the elbow (farther from the origin).
The ear is ___ to the nose (away from midline).
The eye is ___ to the nose (higher).
The eye is ___ to the nose (farther from the midline).
The mouth is ___ to the nose (lower).
The vernacular (everyday) word for thorax is ___.
The abdomen is ___ to the thorax (below).
Genetic material from your parents is stored in the _____ of the cell.
The cranium is the ___ housing around the brain.
The cranium and facial bones are parts of the bones of the head called the ___.
The scientific name for breast bone is ___.
The shoulder is ___ to the sternum (away from the midline).
The palm of the hand is on the ___ side (belly side).
The back of hand is on the ___ side (toward the back).
The top of the foot is ___ side (toward the back).
The sole is on the ___ side (belly side) of the foot.
A noun meaning dorsal is ___.
A noun meaning ventral is ___.
Which quadrant contains most of the liver?
Right Upper Quad (RUQ)
Which quadrant is closest to the left leg?
Left Lower Quad (LLQ)
Which abdominal region contains the belly button?
Which abdominal region is closest to the right arm?
Which abdominal regions are on both sides of the umbilical region?
Lumbar (Right and Left)
Which abdominal region contains the urinary bladder?
Which abdominal region contains the appendix?
Which abdominal region contains most of the stomach?
___ means the front of the elbow.
___ means chest and is a part of the thorax (think of the largest major muscle of your chest).
The groin is referred to as the ___ region.
___ is a term that means neck.
___ refers to the arm pit.
The scientific name for the region behind the knee is the ___.
___ means buttock.
The basic unit of life is the _____.
The _____ plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
The _____ system breaks down and absorbs food.
The energy currency of the cell is ______.
The fluid inside the cell is called _____ fluid.
The nucleus of the atom contains ________ and ________.
Protons and Neutrons
_____ are negatively charged ions.
A solution with a pH of 4 is said to be a/an _______.
The building blocks of proteins is ______.
Water can dissolve many different things. For this reason it is called the _____.
A solution with a pH of 10.0 is ______.
The special form of diffusion that applies only to water is called _____.
The structure that assembles amino acids into proteins _______.
Which of the following are required for active transport?
Transporter and ATP
The chromosomes duplicate during the period between mitotic divisions called _____.
A group of different tissues working together are ______.
The thick, muscular layer (myocardium) of the heart wall is made of what kind of muscle tissue?
The portion of a serous membrane attached to an organ is called the _____.
A cord of connective tissue that connects a bone to a bone is called a/an _____.
The type of tissue found in membranes and glands is _____.
The only type of muscle that is under voluntary control is _____.
A specialized group of (one kind of) cells is a _____.
A plane that divides the body into equal left and right parts is the ______.
The breakdown of complex molecules into more simple ones is called ______.
Fluids located outside the cells are described as _____.
Extracellular (or Intercellular)
Negative feedback is a mechanism for maintaining an internal state of balance known as _______.
Positively charged ions are _____.
A building block of an enzyme is a/an ______.
A pH of 7 is said to be a/an ______.
An isotope that disintegrates, giving off rays of atomic particles (energy), is said to be __________.
Metabolic reactions require organic catalysts (made of protein) called ________.
Any change in the genetic material of the cell _________.
The thigh muscle is an example of what kind of tissue?
A cell that carries nerve impulses is called a/an _________.
The portion of a serous membrane attached to the body wall
A cord of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
A membrane that lines spaces open to the outside of the body
Term for a tumor that does not spread
Adipose tissue stores
Lipids (fats, oil, and energy)
A plane that divides the body into unequal right and left sides
Osmosis is the movement of water from areas of _____ concentration to areas of _____ concentration.
High to Low
The spread of molecules through a membrane which requires energy in the form of ATP
The mitochondrion converts _____ into higher energy _____.
ADP to ATP
The smallest complete unit of a compound
Compounds that release ions when in solution are called
Electrolyte or (ionic compound)
RNA receives its information from _____.
The muscle in the wall of the intestine is an example of
The smallest particle of an element
A cell organelle that assembles amino acids into enzymes is the
_____ and _____ are two examples of substances that cannot pass through the cell membrane by diffusion.
Proteins and Ions
Combining smaller atoms or molecules to form a larger particle is the kind of metabolism called
The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of
The number of _____ in an atom of an element always equals the number of _____ in the atoms of that element
Protons and Electrons
Changing the number of _____ in an atom makes an ion.
Changing the number of _____ in an atom makes an isotope.
You can't change the number of _____ in an atom.
Describes a relatively severe disorder of short duration
A group of signs or symptoms that occur together
Rod-shaped bacteria that may form endospores
An organism that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another
Invasion by a parasitic worm
The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is caused by spiral bacteria called
A general term for any gland that produces sweat
A condition in which the skin takes on a bluish coloration
The “true skin” or corium
Redness of the skin
New epidermal cells are produced by the
stratum germinativum of the epidermis
The main (black) pigment of the skin is
The hollow center of a long bone
A mature (living) bone cell that is completely surrounded by hard bone tissue
A bone cell that builds new bone tissue.
The most caudal part of the vertebral column
An adjective that refers to the ribs
The anatomical name for the collarbone
A freely movable joint held together by ligaments
A nonmovable joint
A slightly movable joint
Muscle under voluntary control
The immediate source of energy for muscle contraction
The muscle attachment joined to the part of the body that moves
The region of union of two or more bones, a joint
A contraction that shortens the muscle but does not increase in strength
A muscle that must relax during a given movement is called the
A muscle enters into oxygen debt (produces lactic acid) when they are functioning
Glands that produce sebum
The deepest layer of the integument(not a part of the skin)
The knob-like end of a long bone forming part of a ball and socket joint
A bone cell that breaks down old bone tissue.
The only muscle type that does not have visible striations
The muscle attachment joined to a part of the body that does not move
Glands that are only found in the breast and produce milk
A skin symptom where small bumps are found on the skin
The end of a long bone
A narrow region of a bone below the head
A cord-like structure that attaches a muscle to bone
Muscles not under voluntary control
A term for a disease that can be transmitted between individuals
A term for a disease that persists over a long period (but is less severe)
Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
The study of the cause of a disorder
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease
Spherical bacteria organized in clusters
Spherical bacteria organized in strings
Spherical bacteria organized in pairs
Glands that are only found in the ear canal
Glands that are only found on the eyelids
The protein in the epidermis that thickens and protects the skin
The uppermost layer of the skin, consisting of flat, keratin-filled cells
Stratum Corneaum of the Epidermis
Another term for itching
A small sac that contains fluid; a blister
Blood vessels become smaller to decrease blood flow (when the skin is cold). This decrease in size is called
The process of blood vessels becoming larger in diameter is called
The shaft of a long bone
The type of bone tissue found at the end of long bones
The kind of bone tissue found in the middle (shaft) of long bones
A distinct border or edge on a bone
A pointed process on a bone
Rough areas on a bone function as sites for
Attachment of Tendon or Ligament
A hole that permits the passage of a vessel or nerve
A lateral curvature of the vertebral column
Scientific name for a “hump-back”
Scientific name for “sway-back”
The last two pairs of ribs, which are very short and do not extend to the front of the body (do not attach in the front)
A structure that attaches a bone to another bone
The structure that attaches a muscle to a bone or another muscle
The muscle type that is found in the middle layer (myocardium) of the heart
The source of energy used by the mitochondria to produce ATP
The compound that accumulates during anaerobic metabolism (not enough oxygen)
The way a muscle moves a part of the body is called the muscle’s _____
A contraction that generates tension but does not shorten the muscle is called
A contraction that does not increase tension but does shorten the muscle
The building blocks of protein
Which cell organelle synthesizes protein?
What tells that organelle which amino acids to use and what order to put the amino acids?
What tells the RNA how to build the protein?
Where do you get your DNA?
Mom and Dad
Which cell organelle contains your DNA?
What is a mutation?
Change in DNA
Where did you get both DNA and RNA?
What cell organelle contains the cell?
Cell (Plasma) Membrane
What does semipermeable (selective permeability) mean?
That it only lets some thing's through
Which cell organelle’s semipermeability (selective permeability) is important in our discussion of the cell’s functioning?
What chemical does the cell use for energy?
Which cell organelle synthesizes the chemical the cell uses for energy?
Which U.S. organization monitors diseases around the world?
Center for Disease Control (CDC)
Which international organization monitors health issues around the world?
World Health Organization (WHO)
What do doctors call a disease that kills everybody it infects?
What do you call an organism (such as chimps or humans) that can carry a disease such as Ebola?
The most prevalent bacterial infection currently on earth is _____.
Who touches who and for how long varies between _____ and _____.
Generation and Culture
Therapeutic touch is called ____
Premature babies gain 47% more weight if they receive _____.
_____ is necessary for physical and psychological well-being
The _____ depraved monkey became neurotic, asocial, depressed, and confused.
_____ can cause airways to relax and relieve asthma, lower blood pressure, decrease pulse, and help lower stress.
The _____ are the most sensitive part of the body to touch.
The scientific name for a nerve cell is
The sheath around some neuron fibers that aids in regeneration (healing)
A nerve containing both afferent and efferent fibers
A nerve containing only afferent fibers
A nerve containing only efferent fibers
The voluntary nervous system controls
Fibers that carry impulses toward the neuron cell body are called
A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers within the central nervous system (CNS).
A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers within the central nervous system (CNS).
A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
A _____ is a bunch of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
The (spider) web-like middle meningeal layer
The inner meningeal layer containing pain nerve endings and blood vessels
An elevated portion of the cerebral cortex
A shallow groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
A deep groove in the cerebral cortex
The largest part of the brain
The part of the brain with a name meaning “little brain”
The region of the diencephalon that acts as a relay center for sensory stimuli
The region of the diencephalon that helps maintain homeostasis
The region of the diencephalon that deals with emotions
The nerve (name and number) that carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain
The lobe of the brain that interprets vision
The lobe of the brain that interprets hearing
Impulses for the sense of taste travel to the
Impulses for the olfactory sense travels to the _____ lobe
A vision receptor that is sensitive to color (and requires more light)
A vision receptor that is sensitive to dim light and only detects black and white
The watery fluid that fills much of the eyeball in front of the crystalline lens
The thick fluid that fills much of the eyeball behind the crystalline lens and is irreplaceable is called_____.
The scientific name for the tear glands
The scientific name for the tear duct from the eye to the nose
The scientific name for the corner of the eye (inner and outer)
Another name for the projecting part, or auricle, of the ear (holds my hat up)
The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing impulses
The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries balance impulses
Alterations in the lens shape to allow for near or far vision is called
The iris is a/an _____ muscle of the eye
The ciliary body is a/an _____ muscle of the eye
There are 6 _____ muscles of the eye
The gland in the neck whose hormone increases the metabolic rate
The 4 small endocrine glands in the neck which help control calcium levels in the blood
The main hormone of the adrenal gland that raises blood pressure and increases the heart rate, and dilates bronchial tubes is called _____.
A gland that produces the hormone that lowers blood glucose levels (makes the cell membrane permeable to glucose)
The endocrine gland that controls many other endocrine glands using tropic hormones
The small gland posterior to the thalamus, which helps control sleep
The endocrine gland in the chest playing a vital role in the immune system
The portion of the pregnant uterus that secretes hormones
The building blocks of growth hormone (a protein) are
_____ produces estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in women
_____ produces estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in men
How does insulin affect the cell membrane?
Makes it permeable to Glucose
How does insulin affect blood sugar?
Diabetes insipidus results in too much _____ production.
The system that reverses the fight-flight-freeze response
Parasympathetic Branch of the ANS
The system that starts the fight-flight-freeze response
Sympathetic Branch of the ANS
The portion of the cerebral cortex where the sense of touch is interpreted
The scientific name for nearsightedness, in which the focal point is in front of the retina and distant objects appear blurred
The visual defect caused by irregularity in the curvature of the lens or cornea
A nerve cell (neuron) fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
The structural division of the nervous system that includes the brain
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The fatty material that covers some axons is called
The spinal nerves are part of the _____ nervous system
Cranial nerves are part of the _____ nervous system
An individual subdivision of the cerebrum that regulates specific functions
Damage to brain tissue caused by a blood clot, ruptured vessel, or embolism
Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA).. (aka.. stroke)
Bleeding between the dura mater and the skull (above the dura mater)
Epidural (hematoma) Hemorrhage
Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain (below the dura mater)
Subdural (hematoma) Hemorrhage
The scientific name for the disorder in which light rays are not bent sharply enough to focus on the retina when viewing close objects
The innermost coat of the eye, the nervous tissue layer that includes the receptors for the sense of vision
The middle coat of the eye
Choroid Coat (layer)
The outermost coat (layer) of the eye
The structure that alters the shape of the lens for accommodation
Ciliary Body (muscle)
The structure that alters the size of the pupil
The jelly-like material located behind the crystalline lens that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball
Vitreous Humor (body)
A hormone that stimulates the outer portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal Cortical Tropic Hormone
A disease in which insulin function is abnormally low
The cell organelle that builds growth hormone (a protein)
Polyuria and polydipsia are common symptoms of both _____ and _____.
Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus
Which hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary that is involved in water balance?
ADH or Antidiuretic Hormone
The structural divisions of the nervous system that includes the nerves and ganglia
PNS or Peripheral Nervous System
The tough outer meningeal layer is the
The endocrine gland composed of a cortex and medulla, each with a specific function
A hormone that lowers the blood glucose level
What kind of physical energy is the eye detecting?
What is the advantage of having rods?
What is the bending of light called?
Which eye humor is involved with glaucoma?
What is the shape of the lens when looking at something near?
What is the shape of the lens when looking at something far?
A contact lens rests on the _____.
How many extrinsic eye muscles are there?
How many intrinsic eye muscles are there?
What substance fills the outer ear?
What substance fills the middle ear?
What substance fills the inner ear?
What is the disorder called when the middle ear is inflamed?
What symptom may a patient have if the inner ear is inflamed?
Exposure to what will cause permanent hearing loss?
Which cranial nerve (name and Roman numeral) carries both the senses of hearing and equilibrium to the brain?
Another name for a white blood cell
Another name for a red blood cell
Another name for a platelet
A lymphocyte that slows antibody production
Supressor T-Cell (Thymus Lymphocytes)
A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and stimulates antibody production
What is the name of the protein that carries oxygen in the blood?
What do you call the amount of oxygen carrying protein in the RBCs of whole blood?
Which kind of leukocytes is/are not an agranulocyte?
_____ are examples of granulocytes.
Basophils, Neutrophils, Eosinphils
_____ are examples of agranulocytes
The clear, watery fluid that remains after a blood clot has been removed from the blood is called
The golden straw colored fluid left after the formed elements are removed from blood is called
Your patient has type B blood. Can you give him type A blood?
Your patient has type AB blood. Can you give her type O blood?
Is there any type of blood you cannot give to someone who has type AB+ blood?
What type(s) of blood can you give someone who has type O- blood?
The outer most layer of the heart
The middle layer of the heart
An upper chamber of the heart
A lower chamber of the heart
The valves of the heart are formed from _____ (layer) of the heart.
Infections (i.e. rheumatic fever) of the _____ can cause a heart murmur.
The area of tissue damaged by lack of blood supply
Inflammation of heart muscle
Inflammation of the outer layer of the heart
Inflammation of the inner layer of the heart
An instrument for recording the electrical activity of the heart
A procedure for measuring the pressure developed in each chamber as the heart contracts
Clot formation in the coronary arteries results in a
The scientific name for a blood clot is
A heart rate (in an adult) of 150 beats per minute is described as
A heart rate of 30 (in an adult) bpm is described as
The small vessel where exchange take place (the only vessel where exchange takes place)
The vessels that deliver blood to the capillaries
The group of vessels that carries blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange is called the _____ circulation.
The group of vessels that carries blood to and from the body (except lungs) is called the _____ circulation.
The branches of the abdominal aorta that supply blood to the kidneys
A region of the medulla oblongata that controls blood vessel diameter
Poison produced by a pathogen
Any foreign substance introduced into the blood that provokes an immune response
A fraction (part) of the blood plasma that contains antibodies
Manufacture of antibodies against one’s own tissue
Which is the only specific defense against an infection?
Another name for a thrombocyte
Another name for erythrocytes
RED BLOOD CELL
Another name for leukocytes
WHITE BLOOD CELL
A substance that often accumulates when leukocytes are actively destroying bacteria
Death of tissue in the muscle layer of the heart is called
The term for a circuit that carries venous blood to a second capillary bed before it returns to the heart
The large vein that drains blood from the parts of the body below the diaphragm
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
The large vein that drains blood from the parts of the body above the diaphragm
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
The means by which a pathogenic organism invades the body
PORTAL OF ENTRY
The lymphocyte that starts the Antigen � Antibody reaction
The lymphocyte that turns into plasma cells
The cells that actually produce the antibodies
The cell that ingests pathogens
The cell that interleukins stimulate
Cells become clumped when mixed with a specific antiserum (wrong type of blood). This clumping is called ______.
The volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
Another name for the epicardium is visceral ________.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
A sound that may result from a heart defect, such as abnormal closing of a heart valve
Aspirin is an example of this type of drug
Clot Busters are a group of drugs medically referred to as
Capillaries combine to form the smallest veins, called
The large vessels that supplies blood to the head
The vessel supplying oxygenated blood to the liver
The vessel that carries food from the digestive tract to the liver
HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN
The vein that drains the area supplied by the carotid artery
What change in blood vessel diameter is caused by smooth muscle contractions?
What change in blood vessel diameter is caused by smooth muscle relaxation?
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
The valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
A protein produced by the body to destroy a foreign substance introduced into the body
Blood serum contains immunity proteins called
The manufacture of antibodies to substances that normally do not harm the body
How many specific defenses against disease(s) are there?
An example of a nonspecific defense is
COUGH, SNEEZE, INTACT SKIN
Cells that combine with foreign antigens and present them to T-cells
Which of the following will result in active immunity?
A lymphocyte that produces antibodies
The wave of pressure from each ventricular contraction
A large vessel which carries blood from the lungs to the heart
The largest vessel which carries blood from the heart to the lungs
The large vessel that carries blood from the liver to the heart
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
Term for blood pressure measured during heart muscle contraction
Term for the blood pressure measured during the heart muscle relaxation.
Scientific name for a disease causing organism
When blood returns from the lungs it enter the _____ (a chamber)
When blood passes through the bicuspid valve it enters the _____ (a chamber).
When blood leaves the left ventricle it passes through the _____ valve.
When blood passes through the aortic valve it enters the _____ (a vessel).
The aorta takes blood to the entire body except the _____.
The blood returns to the heart (from everywhere but the lungs) by the _____ and _____ (vessels).
INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
When blood returns to the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava it enters the _____ (a chamber).
When blood passes through the tricuspid valve it enter the _____ (a chamber)
When blood leaves the right ventricle it goes through the _____ valve.