Intro A & P Final Test Review

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Intro A & P Final Test Review
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Intro A & P Final Test Review (Fultz)
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  1. A line dividing the right side of the body from the left is the _____.
    Midline
  2. A term meaning closer to the midline is ___.
    Medial
  3. ___ literally means closer to the boney housing around the brain.
    Cranial
  4. ___ literally means tail (opposite of cranial).
    Caudal
  5. The stomach is ___ to the intestines (Closer to the origin).
    Proximal
  6. The stomach is ___ to the esophagus (Farther from the origin).
    Distal
  7. ___ literally means closer to the nose or front end.
    Anterior
  8. ___literally means closer to the rear end or tail end.
    Posterior
  9. ___ means toward the back (think of the fin on the back of a shark).
    Dorsal
  10. The neck is ___ to the chest (closer to the head).
    Cranial or Cephalic
  11. The knee is ___ to the ankle (closer to the origin).
    Proximal
  12. The hand is ___ to the elbow (farther from the origin).
    Distal
  13. The ear is ___ to the nose (away from midline).
    Lateral
  14. The eye is ___ to the nose (higher).
    Superior
  15. The eye is ___ to the nose (farther from the midline).
    Lateral
  16. The mouth is ___ to the nose (lower).
    Inferior
  17. The vernacular (everyday) word for thorax is ___.
    Chest
  18. The abdomen is ___ to the thorax (below).
    Inferior
  19. Genetic material from your parents is stored in the _____ of the cell.
    Nucleus
  20. The cranium is the ___ housing around the brain.
    Boney
  21. The cranium and facial bones are parts of the bones of the head called the ___.
    Skull
  22. The scientific name for breast bone is ___.
    Sternum
  23. The shoulder is ___ to the sternum (away from the midline).
    Lateral
  24. The palm of the hand is on the ___ side (belly side).
    Ventral
  25. The back of hand is on the ___ side (toward the back).
    Dorsal
  26. The top of the foot is ___ side (toward the back).
    Dorsal
  27. The sole is on the ___ side (belly side) of the foot.
    Ventral
  28. A noun meaning dorsal is ___.
    Dorsum
  29. A noun meaning ventral is ___.
    Ventrum
  30. Which quadrant contains most of the liver?
    Right Upper Quad (RUQ)
  31. Which quadrant is closest to the left leg?
    Left Lower Quad (LLQ)
  32. Which abdominal region contains the belly button?
    Umbilical
  33. Which abdominal region is closest to the right arm?
    Right Hypochondriac
  34. Which abdominal regions are on both sides of the umbilical region?
    Lumbar (Right and Left)
  35. Which abdominal region contains the urinary bladder?
    Hypogastric
  36. Which abdominal region contains the appendix?
    Right Iliac
  37. Which abdominal region contains most of the stomach?
    Epigastric
  38. ___ means the front of the elbow.
    Antecubital
  39. ___ means chest and is a part of the thorax (think of the largest major muscle of your chest).
    Pectoral
  40. The groin is referred to as the ___ region.
    Inguinal
  41. ___ is a term that means neck.
    Cervical
  42. ___ refers to the arm pit.
    Axillary
  43. The scientific name for the region behind the knee is the ___.
    Popliteal
  44. ___ means buttock.
    Gluteus
  45. The basic unit of life is the _____.
    Cell
  46. The _____ plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
    Transverse
  47. The _____ system breaks down and absorbs food.
    Digestive
  48. The energy currency of the cell is ______.
    ATP
  49. The fluid inside the cell is called _____ fluid.
    Intercellural
  50. The nucleus of the atom contains ________ and ________.
    Protons and Neutrons
  51. _____ are negatively charged ions.
    Anions
  52. A solution with a pH of 4 is said to be a/an _______.
    Acid
  53. The building blocks of proteins is ______.
    Amino Acid
  54. Water can dissolve many different things. For this reason it is called the _____.
    Universal Solvent
  55. A solution with a pH of 10.0 is ______.
    Alkaline (basic)
  56. The special form of diffusion that applies only to water is called _____.
    Osmosis
  57. The structure that assembles amino acids into proteins _______.
    Ribosomes
  58. Which of the following are required for active transport?
    Transporter and ATP
  59. The chromosomes duplicate during the period between mitotic divisions called _____.
    Interphase
  60. A group of different tissues working together are ______.
    Organs
  61. The thick, muscular layer (myocardium) of the heart wall is made of what kind of muscle tissue?
    Cardiac
  62. The portion of a serous membrane attached to an organ is called the _____.
    Visceral Layer
  63. A cord of connective tissue that connects a bone to a bone is called a/an _____.
    Ligament
  64. The type of tissue found in membranes and glands is _____.
    Epithelial
  65. The only type of muscle that is under voluntary control is _____.
    Skeletal
  66. A specialized group of (one kind of) cells is a _____.
    Tissue
  67. A plane that divides the body into equal left and right parts is the ______.
    Midsagittal Plane
  68. The breakdown of complex molecules into more simple ones is called ______.
    Catabolism
  69. Fluids located outside the cells are described as _____.
    Extracellular (or Intercellular)
  70. Negative feedback is a mechanism for maintaining an internal state of balance known as _______.
    Homeostasis
  71. Positively charged ions are _____.
    Cations
  72. A building block of an enzyme is a/an ______.
    Amino Acid
  73. A pH of 7 is said to be a/an ______.
    Neutral
  74. An isotope that disintegrates, giving off rays of atomic particles (energy), is said to be __________.
    Radioactive
  75. Metabolic reactions require organic catalysts (made of protein) called ________.
    Enzymes
  76. Any change in the genetic material of the cell _________.
    Mutation
  77. The thigh muscle is an example of what kind of tissue?
    Skeletal Muscle
  78. A cell that carries nerve impulses is called a/an _________.
    Neuron
  79. The portion of a serous membrane attached to the body wall
    Parietal
  80. A cord of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
    Tendon
  81. A membrane that lines spaces open to the outside of the body
    Mucous
  82. Term for a tumor that does not spread
    Benign
  83. Adipose tissue stores
    Lipids (fats, oil, and energy)
  84. A plane that divides the body into unequal right and left sides
    Sagittal Planes
  85. Osmosis is the movement of water from areas of _____ concentration to areas of _____ concentration.
    High to Low
  86. The spread of molecules through a membrane which requires energy in the form of ATP
    Active Transport
  87. The mitochondrion converts _____ into higher energy _____.
    ADP to ATP
  88. The smallest complete unit of a compound
    Molecule
  89. Compounds that release ions when in solution are called
    Electrolyte or (ionic compound)
  90. RNA receives its information from _____.
    DNA
  91. The muscle in the wall of the intestine is an example of
    Smooth Muscle
  92. The smallest particle of an element
    Atom
  93. A cell organelle that assembles amino acids into enzymes is the
    Ribosomes
  94. _____ and _____ are two examples of substances that cannot pass through the cell membrane by diffusion.
    Proteins and Ions
  95. Combining smaller atoms or molecules to form a larger particle is the kind of metabolism called
    Anabolism
  96. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of
    Protons
  97. The number of _____ in an atom of an element always equals the number of _____ in the atoms of that element
    Protons and Electrons
  98. Changing the number of _____ in an atom makes an ion.
    Electrons
  99. Changing the number of _____ in an atom makes an isotope.
    Neutrons
  100. You can't change the number of _____ in an atom.
    Protons
  101. Describes a relatively severe disorder of short duration
    Acute
  102. A group of signs or symptoms that occur together
    Syndrome
  103. Rod-shaped bacteria that may form endospores
    Bacilli
  104. An organism that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another
    Vector
  105. Invasion by a parasitic worm
    Infestation
  106. The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is caused by spiral bacteria called
    Spirochete
  107. A general term for any gland that produces sweat
    Sudoriferous
  108. A condition in which the skin takes on a bluish coloration
    Cyanosis
  109. The “true skin” or corium
    Dermis
  110. Redness of the skin
    Erythema
  111. New epidermal cells are produced by the
    stratum germinativum of the epidermis
  112. The main (black) pigment of the skin is
    Melanin
  113. The hollow center of a long bone
    Medullary Cavity
  114. A mature (living) bone cell that is completely surrounded by hard bone tissue
    Osteocyte
  115. A bone cell that builds new bone tissue.
    Osteoblasts
  116. The most caudal part of the vertebral column
    Coccyx
  117. An adjective that refers to the ribs
    Costal
  118. The anatomical name for the collarbone
    Clavicle
  119. A freely movable joint held together by ligaments
    Diarthrodial
  120. A nonmovable joint
    Synarthrodial
  121. A slightly movable joint
    Amphirathrodial
  122. Muscle under voluntary control
    Skeletal
  123. The immediate source of energy for muscle contraction
    ATP
  124. The muscle attachment joined to the part of the body that moves
    Insertion
  125. The region of union of two or more bones, a joint
    Articulation
  126. A contraction that shortens the muscle but does not increase in strength
    Isotonic
  127. A muscle that must relax during a given movement is called the
    Antagonist
  128. A muscle enters into oxygen debt (produces lactic acid) when they are functioning
    Anaerobically
  129. Glands that produce sebum
    Sebaceous
  130. The deepest layer of the integument(not a part of the skin)
    Subcutaneous Layer
  131. The knob-like end of a long bone forming part of a ball and socket joint
    Head
  132. A bone cell that breaks down old bone tissue.
    Osteoclasts
  133. The only muscle type that does not have visible striations
    Smooth
  134. The muscle attachment joined to a part of the body that does not move
    Origin
  135. Glands that are only found in the breast and produce milk
    Mammarttendon
  136. A skin symptom where small bumps are found on the skin
    Papules
  137. The end of a long bone
    Epiphysis
  138. A narrow region of a bone below the head
    Neck
  139. A cord-like structure that attaches a muscle to bone
    Tendon
  140. Muscles not under voluntary control
    Smooth, Involuntary
  141. A term for a disease that can be transmitted between individuals
    Communicable
  142. A term for a disease that persists over a long period (but is less severe)
    Chronic
  143. Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
    Infection
  144. The study of the cause of a disorder
    Etiology
  145. A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease
    Prognosis
  146. Spherical bacteria organized in clusters
    Staphylococcus
  147. Spherical bacteria organized in strings
    Streptococcus
  148. Spherical bacteria organized in pairs
    Diplococcus
  149. Glands that are only found in the ear canal
    Ceruminous
  150. Glands that are only found on the eyelids
    Ciliary
  151. The protein in the epidermis that thickens and protects the skin
    Collagen
  152. The uppermost layer of the skin, consisting of flat, keratin-filled cells
    Stratum Corneaum of the Epidermis
  153. Another term for itching
    Pruritis
  154. A small sac that contains fluid; a blister
    Vesicle
  155. Blood vessels become smaller to decrease blood flow (when the skin is cold). This decrease in size is called
    Vasoconstriction
  156. The process of blood vessels becoming larger in diameter is called
    Vasodilation
  157. The shaft of a long bone
    Diaphysis
  158. The type of bone tissue found at the end of long bones
    Spongy
  159. The kind of bone tissue found in the middle (shaft) of long bones
    Compact
  160. A distinct border or edge on a bone
    Crest
  161. A pointed process on a bone
    Spine
  162. Rough areas on a bone function as sites for
    Attachment of Tendon or Ligament
  163. A hole that permits the passage of a vessel or nerve
    Foramen
  164. A lateral curvature of the vertebral column
    Scoliosis
  165. Scientific name for a “hump-back”
    Kyphosis
  166. Scientific name for “sway-back”
    Lordosis
  167. The last two pairs of ribs, which are very short and do not extend to the front of the body (do not attach in the front)
    Floating
  168. A structure that attaches a bone to another bone
    Ligament
  169. The structure that attaches a muscle to a bone or another muscle
    Tendon
  170. The muscle type that is found in the middle layer (myocardium) of the heart
    Cardiac
  171. The source of energy used by the mitochondria to produce ATP
    Food
  172. The compound that accumulates during anaerobic metabolism (not enough oxygen)
    Lactic Acid
  173. The way a muscle moves a part of the body is called the muscle’s _____
    Action
  174. A contraction that generates tension but does not shorten the muscle is called
    Isometric
  175. A contraction that does not increase tension but does shorten the muscle
    Isotonic
  176. The building blocks of protein
    Amino Acid
  177. Which cell organelle synthesizes protein?
    Ribosomes
  178. What tells that organelle which amino acids to use and what order to put the amino acids?
    RNA
  179. What tells the RNA how to build the protein?
    DNA
  180. Where do you get your DNA?
    Mom and Dad
  181. Which cell organelle contains your DNA?
    Nucleus
  182. What is a mutation?
    Change in DNA
  183. Where did you get both DNA and RNA?
    Mom
  184. What cell organelle contains the cell?
    Cell (Plasma) Membrane
  185. What does semipermeable (selective permeability) mean?
    That it only lets some thing's through
  186. Which cell organelle’s semipermeability (selective permeability) is important in our discussion of the cell’s functioning?
    Cell Membrane
  187. What chemical does the cell use for energy?
    ATP
  188. Which cell organelle synthesizes the chemical the cell uses for energy?
    Mitochondria
  189. Which U.S. organization monitors diseases around the world?
    Center for Disease Control (CDC)
  190. Which international organization monitors health issues around the world?
    World Health Organization (WHO)
  191. What do doctors call a disease that kills everybody it infects?
    Slate Wipers
  192. What do you call an organism (such as chimps or humans) that can carry a disease such as Ebola?
    Host's
  193. The most prevalent bacterial infection currently on earth is _____.
    Gonorrhea
  194. Who touches who and for how long varies between _____ and _____.
    Generation and Culture
  195. Therapeutic touch is called ____
    Massage
  196. Premature babies gain 47% more weight if they receive _____.
    Massage
  197. _____ is necessary for physical and psychological well-being
    Touch
  198. The _____ depraved monkey became neurotic, asocial, depressed, and confused.
    Touch
  199. _____ can cause airways to relax and relieve asthma, lower blood pressure, decrease pulse, and help lower stress.
    Massage
  200. The _____ are the most sensitive part of the body to touch.
    Lips
  201. The scientific name for a nerve cell is
    Neuron
  202. The sheath around some neuron fibers that aids in regeneration (healing)
    Neurilemma
  203. A nerve containing both afferent and efferent fibers
    Mixed
  204. A nerve containing only afferent fibers
    Sensory
  205. A nerve containing only efferent fibers
    Motor
  206. The voluntary nervous system controls
    Skeletal Muscles
  207. Fibers that carry impulses toward the neuron cell body are called
    Dendrites
  208. A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers within the central nervous system (CNS).
    Tract
  209. A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers within the central nervous system (CNS).
    Nerve Center
  210. A _____ is a bundle of neuron fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
    Nerve
  211. A _____ is a bunch of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
    Ganglion
  212. The (spider) web-like middle meningeal layer
    Arachnoid Layer
  213. The inner meningeal layer containing pain nerve endings and blood vessels
    Pia Mater
  214. An elevated portion of the cerebral cortex
    Gyrus
  215. A shallow groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
    Sulcus
  216. A deep groove in the cerebral cortex
    Fissure
  217. The largest part of the brain
    Cerebrum
  218. The part of the brain with a name meaning “little brain”
    Cerebellum
  219. The region of the diencephalon that acts as a relay center for sensory stimuli
    Thalamus
  220. The region of the diencephalon that helps maintain homeostasis
    Hypothalamus
  221. The region of the diencephalon that deals with emotions
    Limbic System
  222. The nerve (name and number) that carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain
    Optic II
  223. The lobe of the brain that interprets vision
    Occipital Lobe
  224. The lobe of the brain that interprets hearing
    Temporal Lobe
  225. Impulses for the sense of taste travel to the
    Temporal Lobe
  226. Impulses for the olfactory sense travels to the _____ lobe
    Temporal Lobe
  227. A vision receptor that is sensitive to color (and requires more light)
    Cones
  228. A vision receptor that is sensitive to dim light and only detects black and white
    Rods
  229. The watery fluid that fills much of the eyeball in front of the crystalline lens
    Aqueous humor
  230. The thick fluid that fills much of the eyeball behind the crystalline lens and is irreplaceable is called_____.
    Vitreous Humor
  231. The scientific name for the tear glands
    Lacrimal Glands
  232. The scientific name for the tear duct from the eye to the nose
    Nasolacrimal Glands
  233. The scientific name for the corner of the eye (inner and outer)
    Canthus
  234. Another name for the projecting part, or auricle, of the ear (holds my hat up)
    Pinna
  235. The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing impulses
    Cochlear Branch
  236. The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries balance impulses
    Vestibular Branch
  237. Alterations in the lens shape to allow for near or far vision is called
    Accommodation
  238. The iris is a/an _____ muscle of the eye
    Intrinsic
  239. The ciliary body is a/an _____ muscle of the eye
    Intrinsic
  240. There are 6 _____ muscles of the eye
    Extrinsic
  241. The gland in the neck whose hormone increases the metabolic rate
    Thyroid
  242. The 4 small endocrine glands in the neck which help control calcium levels in the blood
    Parathyroid
  243. The main hormone of the adrenal gland that raises blood pressure and increases the heart rate, and dilates bronchial tubes is called _____.
    Adrenalin (epinephrine)
  244. A gland that produces the hormone that lowers blood glucose levels (makes the cell membrane permeable to glucose)
    Pancreas
  245. The endocrine gland that controls many other endocrine glands using tropic hormones
    Pituitary Gland
  246. The small gland posterior to the thalamus, which helps control sleep
    Pineal
  247. The endocrine gland in the chest playing a vital role in the immune system
    Thymus
  248. The portion of the pregnant uterus that secretes hormones
    Placenta
  249. The building blocks of growth hormone (a protein) are
    Amino Acids
  250. _____ produces estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in women
    Ovaries
  251. _____ produces estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in men
    Testes
  252. How does insulin affect the cell membrane?
    Makes it permeable to Glucose
  253. How does insulin affect blood sugar?
    Lowers it
  254. Diabetes insipidus results in too much _____ production.
    Urine
  255. The system that reverses the fight-flight-freeze response
    Parasympathetic Branch of the ANS
  256. The system that starts the fight-flight-freeze response
    Sympathetic Branch of the ANS
  257. The portion of the cerebral cortex where the sense of touch is interpreted
    Parietal Lobe
  258. The scientific name for nearsightedness, in which the focal point is in front of the retina and distant objects appear blurred
    Myopia
  259. The visual defect caused by irregularity in the curvature of the lens or cornea
    Astigmatism
  260. A nerve cell (neuron) fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
    Axon
  261. The structural division of the nervous system that includes the brain
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  262. The fatty material that covers some axons is called
    Myelin Sheath
  263. The spinal nerves are part of the _____ nervous system
    Peripheral
  264. Cranial nerves are part of the _____ nervous system
    Peripheral
  265. An individual subdivision of the cerebrum that regulates specific functions
    Lobe
  266. Damage to brain tissue caused by a blood clot, ruptured vessel, or embolism
    Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA).. (aka.. stroke)
  267. Bleeding between the dura mater and the skull (above the dura mater)
    Epidural (hematoma) Hemorrhage
  268. Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain (below the dura mater)
    Subdural (hematoma) Hemorrhage
  269. The scientific name for the disorder in which light rays are not bent sharply enough to focus on the retina when viewing close objects
    Hyperopia
  270. The innermost coat of the eye, the nervous tissue layer that includes the receptors for the sense of vision
    Retina
  271. The middle coat of the eye
    Choroid Coat (layer)
  272. The outermost coat (layer) of the eye
    Sclera
  273. The structure that alters the shape of the lens for accommodation
    Ciliary Body (muscle)
  274. The structure that alters the size of the pupil
    Iris
  275. The jelly-like material located behind the crystalline lens that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball
    Vitreous Humor (body)
  276. A hormone that stimulates the outer portion of the adrenal gland
    Adrenal Cortical Tropic Hormone
  277. A disease in which insulin function is abnormally low
    Diabetes Mellitus
  278. The cell organelle that builds growth hormone (a protein)
    Ribosomes
  279. Polyuria and polydipsia are common symptoms of both _____ and _____.
    Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus
  280. Which hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary that is involved in water balance?
    ADH or Antidiuretic Hormone
  281. The structural divisions of the nervous system that includes the nerves and ganglia
    PNS or Peripheral Nervous System
  282. The tough outer meningeal layer is the
    Dura Mater
  283. The endocrine gland composed of a cortex and medulla, each with a specific function
    Adrenal Gland
  284. A hormone that lowers the blood glucose level
    Insulin
  285. What kind of physical energy is the eye detecting?
    Light
  286. What is the advantage of having rods?
    Night Vision
  287. What is the bending of light called?
    Refraction
  288. Which eye humor is involved with glaucoma?
    Aqueous Humor
  289. What is the shape of the lens when looking at something near?
    Spherical
  290. What is the shape of the lens when looking at something far?
    Flat
  291. A contact lens rests on the _____.
    Cornea
  292. How many extrinsic eye muscles are there?
    6
  293. How many intrinsic eye muscles are there?
    2
  294. What substance fills the outer ear?
    Air
  295. What substance fills the middle ear?
    Air
  296. What substance fills the inner ear?
    Fluid (water)
  297. What is the disorder called when the middle ear is inflamed?
    Otitis Media
  298. What symptom may a patient have if the inner ear is inflamed?
    Vertigo
  299. Exposure to what will cause permanent hearing loss?
    Loud Noises
  300. Which cranial nerve (name and Roman numeral) carries both the senses of hearing and equilibrium to the brain?
    Vestibulocochlear, VIII
  301. Another name for a white blood cell
    Leukocyte
  302. Another name for a red blood cell
    Erythrocyte
  303. Another name for a platelet
    Thrombocyte
  304. A lymphocyte that slows antibody production
    Supressor T-Cell (Thymus Lymphocytes)
  305. A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and stimulates antibody production
    Helper T-Cell
  306. What is the name of the protein that carries oxygen in the blood?
    Hemoglobin
  307. What do you call the amount of oxygen carrying protein in the RBCs of whole blood?
    Hemoglobin
  308. Which kind of leukocytes is/are not an agranulocyte?
    Granulocytes
  309. _____ are examples of granulocytes.
    Basophils, Neutrophils, Eosinphils
  310. _____ are examples of agranulocytes
    Lymphocytes, monocytes
  311. The clear, watery fluid that remains after a blood clot has been removed from the blood is called
    Serum
  312. The golden straw colored fluid left after the formed elements are removed from blood is called
    PLASMA
  313. Your patient has type B blood. Can you give him type A blood?
    No
  314. Your patient has type AB blood. Can you give her type O blood?
    YES
  315. Is there any type of blood you cannot give to someone who has type AB+ blood?
    NO
  316. What type(s) of blood can you give someone who has type O- blood?
    O-
  317. The outer most layer of the heart
    EPICARDIUM
  318. The middle layer of the heart
    MYOCARDIUM
  319. An upper chamber of the heart
    ATRIUM
  320. A lower chamber of the heart
    VENTRICLE
  321. The valves of the heart are formed from _____ (layer) of the heart.
    ENDOCARDIUM
  322. Infections (i.e. rheumatic fever) of the _____ can cause a heart murmur.
    VALVE
  323. The area of tissue damaged by lack of blood supply
    INFARCTION
  324. Inflammation of heart muscle
    MYOCARDITIS
  325. Inflammation of the outer layer of the heart
    PERICARDITIS
  326. Inflammation of the inner layer of the heart
    ENDOCARDITIS
  327. An instrument for recording the electrical activity of the heart
    EKG, ECG
  328. A procedure for measuring the pressure developed in each chamber as the heart contracts
    CARDIAC CATHEDERIZATION
  329. Clot formation in the coronary arteries results in a
    MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  330. The scientific name for a blood clot is
    THROMBUS
  331. A heart rate (in an adult) of 150 beats per minute is described as
    TACHYCARDIC
  332. A heart rate of 30 (in an adult) bpm is described as
    BRADYCARDIC
  333. The small vessel where exchange take place (the only vessel where exchange takes place)
    CAPILLARY
  334. The vessels that deliver blood to the capillaries
    ARTERIOLE
  335. The group of vessels that carries blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange is called the _____ circulation.
    PULMONIC
  336. The group of vessels that carries blood to and from the body (except lungs) is called the _____ circulation.
    SYSTEMIC
  337. The branches of the abdominal aorta that supply blood to the kidneys
    RENAL ARTERIES
  338. A region of the medulla oblongata that controls blood vessel diameter
    VASOMOTOR SENSOR
  339. Poison produced by a pathogen
    TOXIN
  340. Any foreign substance introduced into the blood that provokes an immune response
    ANTIGEN
  341. A fraction (part) of the blood plasma that contains antibodies
    SERUM
  342. Manufacture of antibodies against one’s own tissue
    AUTOIMMUNE
  343. Which is the only specific defense against an infection?
    IMMUNITY
  344. Another name for a thrombocyte
    CLOT Platelet
  345. Another name for erythrocytes
    RED BLOOD CELL
  346. Another name for leukocytes
    WHITE BLOOD CELL
  347. A substance that often accumulates when leukocytes are actively destroying bacteria
    PUS
  348. Death of tissue in the muscle layer of the heart is called
    MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
  349. The term for a circuit that carries venous blood to a second capillary bed before it returns to the heart
    PORTAL VEIN
  350. The large vein that drains blood from the parts of the body below the diaphragm
    INFERIOR VENA CAVA
  351. The large vein that drains blood from the parts of the body above the diaphragm
    SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
  352. The means by which a pathogenic organism invades the body
    PORTAL OF ENTRY
  353. The lymphocyte that starts the Antigen � Antibody reaction
    HELPER T-CELL
  354. The lymphocyte that turns into plasma cells
    B-CELLS
  355. The cells that actually produce the antibodies
    PLASMA CELLS
  356. The cell that ingests pathogens
    MACROPHAGE
  357. The cell that interleukins stimulate
    B-CELLS
  358. Cells become clumped when mixed with a specific antiserum (wrong type of blood). This clumping is called ______.
    AGCLUTINATION
  359. The volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
    HEMATOCRIT
  360. Another name for the epicardium is visceral ________.
    PERICARDIUM
  361. The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
    SYSTOLE
  362. The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
    DIASTOLE
  363. A sound that may result from a heart defect, such as abnormal closing of a heart valve
    MURMOR
  364. Aspirin is an example of this type of drug
    ANTICOAGULANT
  365. Clot Busters are a group of drugs medically referred to as
    THROMBOLITICS
  366. Capillaries combine to form the smallest veins, called
    VENULES
  367. The large vessels that supplies blood to the head
    CAROTID ARTERY
  368. The vessel supplying oxygenated blood to the liver
    HEPATIC ARTERY
  369. The vessel that carries food from the digestive tract to the liver
    HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN
  370. The vein that drains the area supplied by the carotid artery
    JUGULAR VEIN
  371. What change in blood vessel diameter is caused by smooth muscle contractions?
    VASOCONSTRICTION
  372. What change in blood vessel diameter is caused by smooth muscle relaxation?
    VASODIALATION
  373. The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
    TRICUSPID
  374. The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
    MITRAL, BICUSPID
  375. The valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
    PULMONARY
  376. The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
    AORTIC
  377. A protein produced by the body to destroy a foreign substance introduced into the body
    ANTIBODY
  378. Blood serum contains immunity proteins called
    IMMUNOGLOBULIN
  379. The manufacture of antibodies to substances that normally do not harm the body
    ALLERGY
  380. How many specific defenses against disease(s) are there?
    ONE, IMMUNITY
  381. An example of a nonspecific defense is
    COUGH, SNEEZE, INTACT SKIN
  382. Cells that combine with foreign antigens and present them to T-cells
    MACROPHAGE
  383. Which of the following will result in active immunity?
    IMMUNIZATION
  384. A lymphocyte that produces antibodies
    PLASMA CELLS
  385. The wave of pressure from each ventricular contraction
    PULSE
  386. A large vessel which carries blood from the lungs to the heart
    PULMONARY VEINS
  387. The largest vessel which carries blood from the heart to the lungs
    PULMONARY ARTERIES
  388. The large vessel that carries blood from the liver to the heart
    INFERIOR VENA CAVA
  389. Term for blood pressure measured during heart muscle contraction
    SYSTOLIC
  390. Term for the blood pressure measured during the heart muscle relaxation.
    DIASTOLIC
  391. Scientific name for a disease causing organism
    PATHOGEN
  392. When blood returns from the lungs it enter the _____ (a chamber)
    L ATRIUM
  393. When blood passes through the bicuspid valve it enters the _____ (a chamber).
    L VENTRICLE
  394. When blood leaves the left ventricle it passes through the _____ valve.
    AORTIC
  395. When blood passes through the aortic valve it enters the _____ (a vessel).
    AORTA
  396. The aorta takes blood to the entire body except the _____.
    LUNGS
  397. The blood returns to the heart (from everywhere but the lungs) by the _____ and _____ (vessels).
    INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
  398. When blood returns to the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava it enters the _____ (a chamber).
    R ATRIUM
  399. When blood passes through the tricuspid valve it enter the _____ (a chamber)
    R VENTRICLE
  400. When blood leaves the right ventricle it goes through the _____ valve.
    PULMONARY

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