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The __ is a cavity lying behind the mouth, and the __ is a muscular tube leading to the stomach.
The __ connects the __ and __ cavities with the __ and __ and is divided into a __ (top portion), __ (middle portion), and __ (bottom portion).
Swallowing reflexes can be divided into three stages.
What is the first?
Food is mixed with saliva and voluntarily forced into the pharynx with the tongue
Swallowing reflexes can be divided into three stages. What is the second?
Sensory receptors in the pharynx sense food, which triggers swallowing reflexes
Swallowing reflexes can be divided into three stages. What is the third?
In the third stage of swallowing, peristalsis transports the food in the esophagus to the stomach
The __ is a straight, __ passageway leading to the stomach.
The __ helps to prevent __ of the stomach contents into the esophagus.
- lower esophageal sphincter
The __ is a __ muscular organ that receives and mixes food with digestive juices (__), and propels food to the small intestine.
- chyme (semilfluid paste)
__ within the __ of the stomach open as __.
- Gastric glands
- gastric pits
Gastric glands generally contain __ types of __.
__ produce mucus that protects the stomach lining.
__ secrete __ (to digest __) as inactive __, which is activated when?
- chief cells
- it comes in contact with hydrochloric acid
__ secrete __.
- parietal cells
- hydrochloric acid
The stomach absorbs only small quantities of __ and __, __, and some __.
- water and certain salts
- lipid-soluble drugs
Following a meal, mixing actions of the stomach turn the food into __ and pass it toward the __ using __.
The rate at which the stomach empties depends on the __ of the __ and the __.
As __ fills the __, stretching of its wall triggers the __, which inhibits __ and slows the rate at which __ enters the small intestine.
chyme/ pyloric region/ peristaltic waves
fluidity/ chyme/ type of food
chyme/ duodenum/ enterogastric reflex/ peristalsis/ chyme
The __ has an __ function of producing __ that aids digestion.
- pancreatic juice
The pancreas is closely associated with the __.
The cells that produce __, called __, make up the bulk of the pancreas.
__ cluster around tiny tubes that merge to form larger ones, and then give rise to the __.
The __ and __ join and empty into the __.
pancraetic juice/ pancreatic acinar cells
pancreatic acinar cells/ pancreatic duct
pancreatic and bile ducts/ small intestine
__ contains __ that digest __, __, __ and __.
- pancreatic juice
- nuclei acids/ fats/ proteins/ carbohydrates
Pancreatic enzymes include __(6)__.
- pancreatic amylase
- pancreatic lipase
- two nucleases
__ are released in an __ form and are activated upon reaching the __.
- Protein-digesting enzymes
- small intestine
The __, located in the __ of the __ cavity, is the body's __ internal organ.
- reddish-brown liver
- upper right quadrant
The liver is divided into __ and __ lobes.
Each lobe is separated into __ consisting of __ radiating from a __.
- right/ left
- hepatic lobules/ hepatic cels/ central vein
The liver is responsible for many __ activities, such as the __ of __, __, and __.
metabolic/ metabolism/ carbohydrates/ lipids/ proteins
The liver also stores __, __, __, __, __, and __.
- vitamins A, D and B12
- iron and blood
The liver __ the blood, removing damaged __ and __, and removes __.
- foreign substances
The liver's role in digestion is to __.
__ is a yellowish- green liquid that __ secrete; it includes __, __, __, __ and __.
- hepatic cells
- bile salts
- bile pigments
__ are breakdown products from __.
Only the __ have a digestive function.
The __ is a pear-shaped sac lying on the interior surface of the __.
It is connected to the __, which joins the __; these two ducts merge to form the __ leading to the __.
A __ controls the release of __ from the ___.
cystic duct/ hepatic duct/ common bile duct/ duodenum
sphincter muscle/ bile/ common bile duct
__ emulsify __ and aid in the __ of __, __ and certain __.
- bile salts
- fatty acids