bio2.txt

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Author:
carolinew
ID:
15300
Filename:
bio2.txt
Updated:
2010-04-19 23:50:34
Tags:
biology nervous system
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Description:
nervous system
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  1. Another name for nerve cell
    neuron
  2. what are neurons adapted for?
    transmission of impulses
  3. what is the nervous system made up of?
    nerve cells or neurons
  4. sensory neurons
    transmit impulses from sense organs (receptors) to the brain + spinal cord
  5. receptors
    senses: eyes, ears, tongue, nose, skin
  6. motor neurons
    transmit impulses from brain and spinal cord to effectors (muscles and glands)
  7. effectors
    muscles and glands
  8. interneurons
    • in spinal cord + brain
    • transmit nerve impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
  9. name 3 kinds of neurons
    • sensory
    • motor
    • inter
  10. nerves
    neurons/parts of neurons bound together in a bundle
  11. sensory nerves
    contain only sensory neurons
  12. motor nerves
    contain only motor neurons
  13. mixed nerves
    contain both sensory and motor neurons
  14. central nervous system
    includes brain + spinal cord
  15. peripheral nervous system
    includes all nerves outside the central nervous system
  16. brain
    • large mass of neurons
    • located in cranial cavity
    • surrounded + protected by bones of the skull
  17. cerebrum
    • largest part of brain
    • thought, memory, learning
    • initiates all voluntary movements
  18. cerebellum
    • located below and behind the cerebrum
    • coordinates all motor activities
    • maintains body's balance
  19. medulla
    • base of the brain, connects brain to spinal cord
    • involuntary activities (breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, peristalsis)
  20. spinal cord
    coordinates activities between the brain + other body structures
  21. somatic nervous system
    • includes nerves that control movements of voluntary muscle
    • sensory neurons that transmit impulses from sense receptors to the CNS
  22. autonomic nervous system
    • nerves that control activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, + glands
    • activities not under voluntary control
  23. habit
    learned behavior that becomes automatic through repetition
  24. reflex
    automatic, inborn response to particular stimulus
  25. trace the path of a reflex arc
    • impulses pass from a:
    • receptor --> sensory neuron --> interneuron in the spinal cord --> motor neuron --> effector
  26. cerebral palsy
    • damage to the parts of the brain that control voluntary movement
    • damage occurs during embryonic development
  27. meningitis
    • inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain + spinal cord
    • viral or bacterial infections
  28. stroke
    cerebral hemorrhage (broken blood vessel) or blood clot
  29. polio
    • virus that affects the central nervous system and may result in paralysis
    • prevented by immunization

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