Patho GI Tract

Card Set Information

Author:
jessiekate22
ID:
153008
Filename:
Patho GI Tract
Updated:
2012-05-10 18:14:53
Tags:
GI tract
Folders:

Description:
Upper and Lower
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jessiekate22 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What makes up the upper GI tract?
    • Mouth/ oral cavity
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Duodenum
    • Liver?
    • Pancreas?
  2. WHat makes up the lower GI tract?
    • SI
    • Gall bladder
    • Large intestine
    • Anus
  3. What is the gut wall of the upper GI tract made up of?
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Serosa
  4. What part of the gut wall is the mucosa? And what is its function?
    • Inner most layer
    • epithelium includes mucus producing cells
  5. What is the submucosa in the gut wall made of?
    • - it is the middle layer
    • - connective tissue
    • - blood vessels
    • - nerves
    • - lymphatic
    • - secretory glands
    • - circular and longitudinal muscle layers
  6. What is the serosa layer of the GI tract?
    • outer layer
    • visceral peritoneum
    • fluid (sera)
  7. WHat is the oral cavity function of the GI tract?
    • - initial phase of mechanical breakdown of food
    • - mastication by teeth
    • - initial chemical digestion- salivary amlase
    • - formation of bolus
    • Swallowing - tounge and pharynx
    • Esophagus- closed except for when swallowing, skeletal mm at superior end which gradually replaced by smooth mm
  8. What is swallowing also known as? ANd done by?
    • - deglutition
    • - tounge and pharynx
  9. What nerve innervates mastication?
    CN V- trigeminal
  10. What nerve innervates taste and saliva?
    CN IX- glossopharyngeal
  11. What nerve innervates the stimulation of digestion and peristalsis?
    CN X- Vagus
  12. What nerve innerates the tounge, esophagus and swallowing?
    CN XII- Hypoglossal
  13. What are some disorders of the oral cavity>
    • - cleft lift and cleft palate
    • - Aphthous Ulcers
    • - Inections- opportunistic flora
    • - Dental caries- infection
    • - Peridontal disease
    • - Inflammatory Dysfunction- hyperferatosis, Sialadenitis, infectious parotitis
  14. What is cleft lip and cleft palate disorder?
    • - disorder of the oral cavity
    • - arise 2-3 months of gestation
    • - feeding problems
    • - high risk of aspirating fluid
    • - speech development impaired
  15. What is the Aphthous Ulcer?
    • - An inflmmatory lesions
    • - Oral cavity disorder
    • - physical injury
    • - chemical injury
    • - infection- streptococcus sanguis
    • - immunological
    • - allergy
    • - dietary
    • - painful, heat, redness, swelling
    • - ulceration- intact or ruptured mucosa (cranker)
  16. What are some of the infections of the oral cavity?
    • Opportunstic flora
    • Herpes
    • Dental caries
  17. What are some opportunistic flora of the oral cavity?
    • - streptococcus sanguies
    • - candida albicans (candidasis- fungal)
    • - immunocompromised
  18. What is an infectious organism of theoral cavity?
    • - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
    • - clse contact transmission
    • - viruse in sensory ganglion may remain dormant
    • - activated by stress, trauma, other infetion
    • - formation of blister, ulcers, clear fluid release- virus. Lesions heal spontaneously in 7-10 days
    • May spread to eyes- conjunctivitis
  19. What is the oral cavity disorder dental caries?
    • - infection
    • - initiating microorganism- streptococcus mutans- lactobacillus follows in large numbers
    • - bacteria break down sugars- increase LA
    • - LA dissolves mineral in tooth enamel- tooth erosion and cavity formation- caries
  20. What promotes dental caries?
    • - intake of sugars and acids
    • - fissures in tooth surface
    • - dry mouth
    • - laque formation
    • - periodontal disease
  21. What is periodontal disease of the oral cavity?
    • - infection and damage to the gingiva, periodontal ligament and bone- poor oral hygiene, systemic factors
    • - Gingivitis- local or systemic problem- inflammation of the gingiva- red, soft, swollen, bleeds easily
    • - Periodontitis- activity of the destructive microbe, aggravated by smoking, cancer, diabetes, inflammation in tissues/ bone around the tooth
  22. What is the inflmmatory oral cavity dysfunction hyperkeratosis?
    • - leukoplakia
    • - whitish plaque or epidermal thickening of mucosa
    • - occurs on buccal mucosa, palate, lower lip
    • -chronic irriation- epithelial may develop into squamous cell carcinoma
  23. What is the inflammatory dysfunction of the oral cavity sialadenitis?
    • Inflammation og the salivary glands
    • can be infectious and non infectious
    • most common- parotid gland
  24. What is infectious parotitis?
    • - inflammatory dysfunction of the oral cavity
    • - viral infection- mups
  25. What is the muscle types of the esophagus?
    • -upper esophagus- striated mm
    • -lower " " - smooth muscle
    • Longitudinal and circular layers for peristalsis
  26. What are some functional compromise/mobility disorders of the esophagus that leads to dysphagia (swallowing is difficult of painful)?
    • Obstruction
    • - stenosis- chromic inflammation, fibrosis, esophagitis
    • - tumor- internal or external
    • - diverticular formation- outpouching, herniation
    • - developmental defects- atresia (narrowing of opening to trachea), fistula (hole betweento organs or surfacesthat isnt to bethere)
    • Neurological defects- infection, stroke, achalasia (disorder of esophagus- problems swallowing)
    • Muscle impairment- ie diaphragm dystrophy-hiatal hernia
  27. What are the disorders of the esophagus?
    • Hiatus hernia
    • Gastroerophageal reflux (GORD)
  28. What is a hiatus hernia?
    • - part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity
    • - sliding hernia- more common type, portion of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction slide up above the diaphragm
    • - rolling or paraesophageal hernia- part of the fundus of the stomach moves up through an enlarged or weak hiatus in the diaphragm and may become trapped. Food lodges in pouch- inflammation of mucosa, reflux of food up esophagus- obstruction, dyspahgia, blood vessels trapped- ulceration, esophagitis
  29. What is GERD?
    - periodic reflux/ flow of gastric contents into distal esophagus- pain, inflammation- errosion of mucosa- ulceration, fibrosisand stricture

    • Precipitated by:
    • - hiatal hernia
    • - lower esophageal sphincter incompetence
    • - delayed gastric emptying
    • - carreince, fatty/ spicy foods, alcohol, smoking and certain drugs
  30. What are the disorders of the stomach?
    • - gastritis- acute and chronic
    • - gastroenteritis
    • - gastric and peptic (duodenal) ulcers
    • - dumping syndrome
    • - pyloric stenosis
  31. What is acute gastritis?
    • - inflamation
    • - acute (self limiting)
    • - gastric mucosa inflammation- ulcerated and bleeding (transient or progressive)

    • Precipitating events:
    • - infection by microorganisms
    • - allergies to food
    • - spicy or irritating foods
    • - excessive alcohol intake
    • - ingestion of ulcerogenic drugs eg aspirin
    • - ingestion of corrosive or toxic substances
    • - radiation or chemotherapy
  32. What is chronic gastritis?
    • Chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa
    • Atrophy of the mucosa and loss of secretory glands
    • decrease parietal cells- achlorhydria and decrease intrinsic factory- loss of vit B12 absorption
  33. What are the signs and sympoms of chronic gastritis?
    • - anorexia, nausea, epigastric discomfort, vomiting, cramps, pain and hematemesis (vomiting blood)
    • - infection- headache, fever, diarrhea
    • - prolonged vomiting- dehydration, electrolyte loss and metabolic acidosis
    • - chronic- peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma (stomach cancer)
  34. What is gastroenteritis?
    • - inflammation of stomach and intestinal mucosa
    • stomach- vomiting
    • intesting- diarrhea
  35. What is the usual cause of gastroenteritis?
    • Usually due to infection
    • - enterotoxins
    • - inflammation
    • - ulceration
    • - neurotoxins
    • - allergic reactions to food or drugs
  36. Where do gastric and peptic ulcers occur?
    • - stomach and duodenum
    • -penetrates submucosa
  37. What are some contributing factor to gastric and peptic ulcers?
    • - inadequate blood supply
    • - increase in glucocorticoid secretion (involed in COH absorption)
    • - ulcerogenic substances
    • - chromic gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach)
  38. How does a peptic ulcer occur?
    • - acid or pepsin penetrates the mucosalbarrier
    • - tissue damage into muscularis
    • - inflammation around the area
    • - blood vessel involvement (perforation)- bleeding or hemorrhage
    • - increase in acid and pepsin secretions
    • - rapid gastric emptying
  39. What factors lead to mucosal damage?
    Peptic ulcer
    • - decrease mucosal resistance
    • - increase in HCL
    • - increase in pepsin secretions
    • - helicobacter pylori (bacteria in stomach)
  40. In the stomach what occurs in relation to an increase in acid- pepsin secretions?
    • - increase gastric secretions
    • - increase vagal stimulation (secretion and peristalsis)
    • - increase number of acid- pepsin secretory cells
    • - stimulates acid- pepsin secretions- alcohol, caffeine,certain foods
    • - rapid gastric emptying
  41. What is the dumping syndrome?
    • - stomach syndrome
    • - loss of control of gastric emptying
    • - due to gastrectomy (removal of pyloric sphincter)
    • - dumping of food into intestine
  42. What is pylric stenosis?
    • - stomach disorder
    • - narrowing and obstruction of pyloric sphincter
    • - developmental or acquired
  43. What are the signs and symptoms of pyloric stenosis?
    • Developing
    • - projectile vomiting immediately after feeding
    • - firm mass at pylorus
    • - decrease wieght
    • - increase dehydration
    • - persistnet hunger
    • Acquired
    • - persistent feeling of fullness
    • - increased incidence of vomiting
  44. What are some lower GI tracts diseases?
    • Celiac disease
    • Chronic inflammatory Bowel disease
    • Chroh's disease
    • Appendicitis
    • Diverticular disease
    • Colorectal Cancer (CRC)
    • Interstinal Obstruction
    • Peritonitis
  45. What is celiac disease?
    • - lower GI tract
    • - malabsorption syndrome
    • - primarily a childhood disorder- may occur in adults- middle age
    • - defects in intestinal enzymes- might be linked to a genetic factor
    • - prevents further digestion of gliadin-breakdown product of gluten- grains
    • - immunological response- toxic effect on intestinal villi- atrophy of villi results in a decrease in enzyme production and SA
    • - malabsorption and malnutrition- steatorrhea, mm wasting, low weight gain
  46. What are some chronic inflammatory bowel disease?
    • - Crohns disease- SI
    • -ulcerative colitis- rectu, and proximally in colon
  47. What is crohns diease?
    • - inflammation - ulcer- coalesce- fissues/ abscesses/fistulas- fibrosis- stricture and obstructuion
    • - involves all layers- granulomas are indicative
    • - increase insetinal motility- decrease in digestion and absorption
  48. What is ulcerative Colitis?
    • - a lwer GI tract disease
    • - inflammation of mucosa and submucosa
    • - changein goblet cell activity
    • - edematous tissue and ulcerations develop- decrease in absorption of fluid and eletrolytes
    • - increased risk of colorectal carsinoma
  49. What is appendicitis?
    • - lower GI tract disease
    • - inflammation and infection of the appendix
  50. What is the pathophysiology of appendicitis?
    • - obstruction of appendiceal lumen - gallstone, foreigb material, twisting, spasm
    • - increase fluid build up in appendix
    • - microorganisms proliferate- inflammation of wall, purulent exudate, swelling, congestion and pressure within the appendix- ischemia and necrosis- increases permeability
    • - bacteria and toxins escape through the wall - infection or peritonitis around the appendix- spread aling the peritoneal membrances
    • -increased necrosis and gangrene in the wall- increase pressure
    • - appendix ruptures or perforates- release of contents into peritoneal cavity- generalised peritonitis.
  51. What is diverticular disease?
    • - lower GI tract disease
    • - development of diverticular (pouching)
    • - diverticulum- outpuching (herniation) of themucosa through the mm layer of the colon- sigmoid colon
    • - diverticulosis
    • * asymptomatic diverticular disease
    • * imflammation of the diverticular
  52. What is the pathophysiology of the diverticular disease?
    • - diverticula form at gaps between mm layers- weak wall
    • - when pressure increases wall bulges outwards
    • - stasis of feces in diverticula- inflammation and infection (diverticulitis)
    • - intestinal obstruction
    • - perforation/ peritoitis. abcess formation = cramping, tenderness, nausea, vomiting
  53. What is colorectal cancer? CRC
    • - develops from adenomatous polyps- dysplasia of polyp and malignant changes- CRC
    • - distributed throughout the colon and rectum
  54. What is the cause of CRC?
    • - genetic
    • - diet
    • - ulcerative colitis

    • Which leads to
    • - alter bowel function
    • - obstruction
    • - pain
    • - bowel perforation
  55. What are the signs and symptoms of CRC?
  56. What is intestinal obstruction?
    • - lower GI tract disease
    • - lack of movement of intestinal contents through the intestines- more common in SI
    • - Acute or progressive
  57. What are the mechanical obstruction of inestional obstructions?
    • adhesions
    • hernias
    • tumors
    • twist (volvulus)
    • intussuception
  58. What are the functional intesinal obstructions?
    • spinal cord injury
    • paralytic ileus due to toxins
    • abdominal surgery- ischemia
    • inflammation or infection
    • mesenteric thrombosis
  59. What is the pathophysioogy of the intestinal obstruction?
    • - gases and fluids proximal to blockage, distending the intestine
    • - strong contractions of proximal intestine
    • - pressure increases in lumen- increases secretions into intestine, compression of veins in wal, intestinal wall become edematous= prevention of absorption
    • - inestinal distention- persistent vomiting- additional lossof fluid and electrolytes- hypovolemia
    • - inetinal wall becomes ischmic and necrotic- decrease arterial blood supply due to the pressure- gangrene ensues, decrease innervation and cessation of peristalsis
    • - bacteria leak into the peritoneal cavity or blood- peritonitis or septicemia
  60. What are the effects of intestinal obstruction?
  61. Peritonitis
  62. Manifestations of GIT disorders
    • - anorexia, nausea and vomitins- ways of eliminating noxious substances- emetic reflex
    • - can lead to dehydration, acidosis, malnutrition
    • - risk of aspiration- supine, unconsciou, drug/ alcohol
    • - diarrhea
    • - constipation
    • - fluid and electrolyte imbalance
    • - pain
    • - malnutrition

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview