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Acid base definitions
- Arrhenius: Acids produce [H+] ions in solution and bases produce [OH–] ions in solution
- Bronstead-Lowry: Acids donate protons [H+]; bases accept protons [H+].
- Lewis: Acids accept a pair of electrons; bases donate a pair of electrons.
Amphoteric substances can act as either an acid or a base. (e.g. H2
- pH = –log[H+]
- pOH = –log[OH–]
- pH + pOH = 14
Polyprotic acids: acids with more than one acidic proton like sulfuric acid. The second proton is always significantly less acidic.
- Group IA hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, etc.)