Agriculture 101 Final

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  1. malthus theory is:
    • population increase geometrically
    • food production increase arithmetically
  2. green revolution is:
    • Dr. Norman Borlaug was father
    • plant improvement & agronomic package were primary reasons
  3. potato origin:
    South America
  4. Order of historical developments
    1st Ag research station, Morrill Act, Hatch Act, Smith Act
  5. photosynthesis stops due to lack of ___ rather than lack of ___
    • CO2
    • water
  6. Factor affect PS rate:
    • Light
    • carbon concentration
    • temperature
    • chlorophyll and water
    • Leaf area
  7. factor affect photosynthesis rate
    • nutrients status
    • temperature
    • leaf area
  8. Photorespiration:
    • occurs when CO2 levels low
    • most cool season crops under drought stress
    • lead to slow growth
  9. PS decrease after____
    pass optimum temperature
  10. factors affect control respiration rate to store fruits & tuber
    • low temperature
    • low O2
    • low moisture
  11. factor increase anaerobic respiration rate
    increase O2 level
  12. ____ % moisture content used to store silage
    50-60
  13. C3 plants are _____
    warm season crops
  14. respiration:
    • occurs in all living organism
    • anaerobic respiration is partial respiration w/o O2
    • respiration both plant & animal
  15. water & mineral nutrients absorption through:
    • root hair
    • minerals through active uptake
    • active uptake requires ATP energy
  16. cultivar can't be written in ______ system
    Latin binomial
  17. winter annuals:
    grow in fall, overwinter, complete life next summer
  18. cover crop protect soil from ____
    erosion
  19. fodder:
    • whole of nearly mature corn or sorghum harvested & dry cured like shocks
    • used to feed domestic animals
  20. poor Ag Marketing is why _____ people are starving
    Soviet Union
  21. intercropping:
    growing 2 + crops together at same time on same land
  22. corn, cotton, & soybean are ____crop
    row
  23. wheat & rye are _____season crop
    cool
  24. peanut, cowpea, soybean, & bungbean are ____ crops
    pulse
  25. beans have _ cotyledons w/ arrangement of vascular _____ ____
    • 2
    • bundle rings
  26. spruces are:
    seed plant that has cones w/o flowers
  27. C3 plants are:
    • wheat, barley, & potato
    • involved in normal respiration
  28. C4 plants are:
    maize, sugarcane, & sorghum
  29. CAM are:
    desert plant, pineapple, cactus
  30. difference between CAM & C4:
    CAM open stomata @ night vs. day w/ C4
  31. 3 major crops in world w/ scientific name:
    • Corn - Zea mays
    • Wheat - Triticium aestivum
    • Rice - Oryza sativa
  32. 4 differences between xylem & phloem:
    • xylem is 1-way passage, up direction, passive uptake, thick cell walls
    • phloem is 2-way passage, water & mineral uptake, active uptake, thin cell wall
  33. KPCOFGS
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  34. PS equation:
    6 CO2 + 12 H2O + LIGHT --> C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 6O2
  35. Respiration equation:
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
  36. milestone in american Ag (in order)
    • animal immunization
    • canning & refrigeration
    • ag. mechanization
    • pesticide
    • genetic
    • artificial insemination
    • embryo transplant
    • computers
    • genetic engineering
  37. parts found in monocot & monocot leaf:
    • auricles, petiole
    • cotyledon, leaflet
    • coleoptiles, collar
  38. ligule keeps ____ & ____ out
    • dirt
    • moisture
  39. coleoptiles protect ____ in monocot
    plumule
  40. pea has _____ & sorghum has _____
    • epigeal emergence
    • hypogeal emergence
  41. skotomorphogensis switch to photomorphogenesis when plant meets _____
    light
  42. cotyledons of monocot remain _____
    below ground
  43. low percent CO2 & higher O2 make higher percent _____
    germination
  44. O2 required for seed germination because of ______
    respiration
  45. corn has longer _____ b/c of ______
    • longevity
    • high starch content
  46. intercalary meristems in monocot stem are to grow ______
    leaf blades & stem
  47. ______ & ______ aren't allow above certain level in seed sale
    dodder & johnsongrass
  48. soil texture can't affect ____ of seeding
    time
  49. increase ABA concentration cause _____
    stomata to close
  50. rye has lots of ______ in endosperm
    carbohydrate
  51. _______ requires higher water content for germination
    soybean
  52. where 1st node of dicot are?
    where cotyledons attached
  53. root hairs:
    • short life cycle
    • single-cellular
    • continually replaced
  54. brace root:
    found above ground on corn
  55. ___ is mobile around plant root & ___ is immobile
    • N
    • P
  56. Tuber equals?
    yellow nutsedge
  57. johnsongrass can't be controlled by _____ but by _______ herbicide
    • tillage
    • systemic
  58. ______ & _____doesn't need scarification treatment
    • alfalfa
    • buffalograss
  59. ___lbs of rice in bushel
    56
  60. excess N cause ____ & K nutrient to avoid loading
    lodging
  61. 5 requirements for seed germination:
    • viable seed
    • mature seed
    • oxygen
    • water/moisture
    • temperature
  62. new root of ___ come from phloem
    dicot
  63. _______ stems is horizontal underground
    Rhizome
  64. rice requires ____ water content for germination
    low
  65. grain drill:
    • seeding equipment for planting wheat & barley
    • 4-14 inches row spacing
  66. row planters:
    10-18 inches for corn, peanuts, & cotton
  67. broadcast seeder:
    specialized seeders
  68. prohibited noxious weed is _____
    yellow nutsedge
  69. optimum storage condition:
    • 40 degress F
    • <50% humidity
    • humidity more important than temperature
  70. parallel veins can't be found in ____ leaf
    dicot
  71. axillary bud develops into:
    • branches, tillers, or flowering structure
    • located at each node of stem
  72. coleoptiles, auricles can't be found in _____ & _____ leaf
    • dicot
    • dicot
  73. 5 seed dormancy mechanism:
    • chemical inhibitor
    • immature seed/embryo
    • scarification
    • light requirement
    • stratification
  74. radical to hypocotyl w/ primary root to hypocotyls hook on surface to cotyledons on surface w/ dropping seed coat to plumule come out from cotyledons w/ erecting hypocotyls to 1st true leaves w/ apical bud to 1st & 2nd node
    can see epicotyls between 2nd node & 1st leaf
  75. ET
    • 67% proportion returns to atmosphere through ET from coterminous U.S
    • soil texture don't affect
    • low wind decrease ET
    • FA higher ET than others
  76. Shreveport belongs to ____ aquifer system
    Sparta
  77. decrease erosion & soil crusting are benefit of ______
    cover crops
  78. 60% available water depleted means:
    irrigation required
  79. trickle irrigation would have:
    • lower evaporation
    • low leaching
    • low erosion effect w/ no land preparation
  80. A horizon has:
    darker color
  81. Pore space size in ____ is larger than clay
    sandy
  82. organic matter helps __ & loosen for clay & "____" together for sand
    • open
    • glue
  83. FC soil water form can't be used for plant growth b/c __________
    fast movement of water by gravity
  84. OM:
    • high water holding capacity
    • high nutrient holding capacity
    • lack nutrients as decompose
  85. Soil pH is acid ____ & soil basic at ___
    • < 7
    • >7
  86. soil organisms:
    • convert organic form to inorganic form
    • break down pesticide in long term
    • improve soil structure
  87. essential elements come from air & water
    C, H, O
  88. method of fertilizer application for corn
    sidedress
  89. saline soil has excess ______ & ______ occurs at soil
    • soluble salts
    • white crust
  90. ______ OM broken down faster than others
    sugar
  91. carbon storage in _____ is major reservior
    deep ocean
  92. _____ highest percentage in OM
    carbon
  93. ___% organic carbon in 17% organic matter soil
    10
  94. C:N ratio affect immobilization or mineralization
    • < 20 :1 mineralization
    • 30: 1 immobilization
  95. 4 basic components of all soil w/ percentage of each:
    • solid -- 50%
    • water--25%
    • air --25%
    • OM--5%
  96. particle sand size
    < .05 mm
  97. particle silt size:
    .05- .002 mm
  98. particle clay size:
    > .002 mm
  99. 6 kingdoms:
    • protista
    • animalia
    • archobacteria
    • euobacteria
    • fungi
    • plantae
  100. 3 greenhouse gases:
    • CO2
    • nitrous oxide
    • methane
  101. 8 states belong to Ogalla aquifer:
    • south dakota
    • wyoming
    • new mexico
    • kansas
    • texas
    • nebraska
    • colorado
    • oklahoma
  102. 3 reasons why soil becomes acidic:
    • leaching in high rainfall area
    • crop removal of Ca & Mg
    • denitrification of ammonia
  103. 4 ways to maintain soil OM
    • prevent soil erosion
    • return crop residue to soil/ no tillage practices
    • adding organic material to soil
    • add green manure
  104. Rhizobium is a special _____
    bacteria
  105. legume plants are:
    • alfalfa
    • clover
  106. bacteria occurs in _______ on lateral root
    nodules
  107. plant give _____ to special bacteria
    energy
  108. cereals 1st crop domesticated b/c of ____
    easy storage
  109. ____ improve pasture
    ryegrass
  110. < __% moisture content required to avoid seed spoil when storing
    14
  111. perennial grow from:
    year to year indefinitely
  112. seuential cropping growing ______ crops one afterother in same year on same land
    2 +
  113. chlorophll in leaf contains ___ & ____
    • N
    • Mg
  114. _____ produce by anaerobic respiration
    butter
  115. straw is:
    dry small grain residue after grain been harvested
  116. most recommended forages in LA:
    • annual ryegrass
    • cereal rye
    • oats
    • dallisgrass
    • bermudagrass
    • bahia grass
  117. Louis Pasteur develeoped what?
    vaccination for animals to immune disease
  118. 3 basic components of all seeds:
    • energy source
    • embryo
    • seed coat
  119. 3 basic chemical components in seeds
    • oil
    • protein
    • carbohydrates
  120. Tetrazotium is:
    dye trurns red to show viability dormant seed
  121. types of producers of seed:
    • breeders
    • foundation
    • registered
    • certified
  122. part of simple leaf
    • petiole
    • axillary bud
    • blade
  123. forbs means:
    broadleaved, herbaceous plant
  124. soilage mean?
    corn or sorghum cut when green & fed directly
  125. ferns & mosses dont have_____
    seeds
  126. ABA stands for?
    abscisic acid
  127. application method of spraying gertilizer on leaves
    foliar
  128. 3 main aquifers in LA
    • sparta
    • chicot
    • southeast
  129. petiole not in ____ leaf
    monocot
  130. sorghum has ______ root
    adventitious
  131. Bermudagrass has _____
    rhizome
  132. Germplasm means?
    genetic material made as seed or living plant, DNA for species or variety
Author
ID
153022
Card Set
Agriculture 101 Final
Description
Plant Final pulled from Spring 12 tests
Updated
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