Agriculture 101 Final

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Anonymous
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153022
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Agriculture 101 Final
Updated:
2012-05-08 21:52:06
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Ag 101 Final Review
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Plant Final pulled from Spring 12 tests
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  1. malthus theory is:
    • population increase geometrically
    • food production increase arithmetically
  2. green revolution is:
    • Dr. Norman Borlaug was father
    • plant improvement & agronomic package were primary reasons
  3. potato origin:
    South America
  4. Order of historical developments
    1st Ag research station, Morrill Act, Hatch Act, Smith Act
  5. photosynthesis stops due to lack of ___ rather than lack of ___
    • CO2
    • water
  6. Factor affect PS rate:
    • Light
    • carbon concentration
    • temperature
    • chlorophyll and water
    • Leaf area
  7. factor affect photosynthesis rate
    • nutrients status
    • temperature
    • leaf area
  8. Photorespiration:
    • occurs when CO2 levels low
    • most cool season crops under drought stress
    • lead to slow growth
  9. PS decrease after____
    pass optimum temperature
  10. factors affect control respiration rate to store fruits & tuber
    • low temperature
    • low O2
    • low moisture
  11. factor increase anaerobic respiration rate
    increase O2 level
  12. ____ % moisture content used to store silage
    50-60
  13. C3 plants are _____
    warm season crops
  14. respiration:
    • occurs in all living organism
    • anaerobic respiration is partial respiration w/o O2
    • respiration both plant & animal
  15. water & mineral nutrients absorption through:
    • root hair
    • minerals through active uptake
    • active uptake requires ATP energy
  16. cultivar can't be written in ______ system
    Latin binomial
  17. winter annuals:
    grow in fall, overwinter, complete life next summer
  18. cover crop protect soil from ____
    erosion
  19. fodder:
    • whole of nearly mature corn or sorghum harvested & dry cured like shocks
    • used to feed domestic animals
  20. poor Ag Marketing is why _____ people are starving
    Soviet Union
  21. intercropping:
    growing 2 + crops together at same time on same land
  22. corn, cotton, & soybean are ____crop
    row
  23. wheat & rye are _____season crop
    cool
  24. peanut, cowpea, soybean, & bungbean are ____ crops
    pulse
  25. beans have _ cotyledons w/ arrangement of vascular _____ ____
    • 2
    • bundle rings
  26. spruces are:
    seed plant that has cones w/o flowers
  27. C3 plants are:
    • wheat, barley, & potato
    • involved in normal respiration
  28. C4 plants are:
    maize, sugarcane, & sorghum
  29. CAM are:
    desert plant, pineapple, cactus
  30. difference between CAM & C4:
    CAM open stomata @ night vs. day w/ C4
  31. 3 major crops in world w/ scientific name:
    • Corn - Zea mays
    • Wheat - Triticium aestivum
    • Rice - Oryza sativa
  32. 4 differences between xylem & phloem:
    • xylem is 1-way passage, up direction, passive uptake, thick cell walls
    • phloem is 2-way passage, water & mineral uptake, active uptake, thin cell wall
  33. KPCOFGS
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  34. PS equation:
    6 CO2 + 12 H2O + LIGHT --> C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 6O2
  35. Respiration equation:
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
  36. milestone in american Ag (in order)
    • animal immunization
    • canning & refrigeration
    • ag. mechanization
    • pesticide
    • genetic
    • artificial insemination
    • embryo transplant
    • computers
    • genetic engineering
  37. parts found in monocot & monocot leaf:
    • auricles, petiole
    • cotyledon, leaflet
    • coleoptiles, collar
  38. ligule keeps ____ & ____ out
    • dirt
    • moisture
  39. coleoptiles protect ____ in monocot
    plumule
  40. pea has _____ & sorghum has _____
    • epigeal emergence
    • hypogeal emergence
  41. skotomorphogensis switch to photomorphogenesis when plant meets _____
    light
  42. cotyledons of monocot remain _____
    below ground
  43. low percent CO2 & higher O2 make higher percent _____
    germination
  44. O2 required for seed germination because of ______
    respiration
  45. corn has longer _____ b/c of ______
    • longevity
    • high starch content
  46. intercalary meristems in monocot stem are to grow ______
    leaf blades & stem
  47. ______ & ______ aren't allow above certain level in seed sale
    dodder & johnsongrass
  48. soil texture can't affect ____ of seeding
    time
  49. increase ABA concentration cause _____
    stomata to close
  50. rye has lots of ______ in endosperm
    carbohydrate
  51. _______ requires higher water content for germination
    soybean
  52. where 1st node of dicot are?
    where cotyledons attached
  53. root hairs:
    • short life cycle
    • single-cellular
    • continually replaced
  54. brace root:
    found above ground on corn
  55. ___ is mobile around plant root & ___ is immobile
    • N
    • P
  56. Tuber equals?
    yellow nutsedge
  57. johnsongrass can't be controlled by _____ but by _______ herbicide
    • tillage
    • systemic
  58. ______ & _____doesn't need scarification treatment
    • alfalfa
    • buffalograss
  59. ___lbs of rice in bushel
    56
  60. excess N cause ____ & K nutrient to avoid loading
    lodging
  61. 5 requirements for seed germination:
    • viable seed
    • mature seed
    • oxygen
    • water/moisture
    • temperature
  62. new root of ___ come from phloem
    dicot
  63. _______ stems is horizontal underground
    Rhizome
  64. rice requires ____ water content for germination
    low
  65. grain drill:
    • seeding equipment for planting wheat & barley
    • 4-14 inches row spacing
  66. row planters:
    10-18 inches for corn, peanuts, & cotton
  67. broadcast seeder:
    specialized seeders
  68. prohibited noxious weed is _____
    yellow nutsedge
  69. optimum storage condition:
    • 40 degress F
    • <50% humidity
    • humidity more important than temperature
  70. parallel veins can't be found in ____ leaf
    dicot
  71. axillary bud develops into:
    • branches, tillers, or flowering structure
    • located at each node of stem
  72. coleoptiles, auricles can't be found in _____ & _____ leaf
    • dicot
    • dicot
  73. 5 seed dormancy mechanism:
    • chemical inhibitor
    • immature seed/embryo
    • scarification
    • light requirement
    • stratification
  74. radical to hypocotyl w/ primary root to hypocotyls hook on surface to cotyledons on surface w/ dropping seed coat to plumule come out from cotyledons w/ erecting hypocotyls to 1st true leaves w/ apical bud to 1st & 2nd node
    can see epicotyls between 2nd node & 1st leaf
  75. ET
    • 67% proportion returns to atmosphere through ET from coterminous U.S
    • soil texture don't affect
    • low wind decrease ET
    • FA higher ET than others
  76. Shreveport belongs to ____ aquifer system
    Sparta
  77. decrease erosion & soil crusting are benefit of ______
    cover crops
  78. 60% available water depleted means:
    irrigation required
  79. trickle irrigation would have:
    • lower evaporation
    • low leaching
    • low erosion effect w/ no land preparation
  80. A horizon has:
    darker color
  81. Pore space size in ____ is larger than clay
    sandy
  82. organic matter helps __ & loosen for clay & "____" together for sand
    • open
    • glue
  83. FC soil water form can't be used for plant growth b/c __________
    fast movement of water by gravity
  84. OM:
    • high water holding capacity
    • high nutrient holding capacity
    • lack nutrients as decompose
  85. Soil pH is acid ____ & soil basic at ___
    • < 7
    • >7
  86. soil organisms:
    • convert organic form to inorganic form
    • break down pesticide in long term
    • improve soil structure
  87. essential elements come from air & water
    C, H, O
  88. method of fertilizer application for corn
    sidedress
  89. saline soil has excess ______ & ______ occurs at soil
    • soluble salts
    • white crust
  90. ______ OM broken down faster than others
    sugar
  91. carbon storage in _____ is major reservior
    deep ocean
  92. _____ highest percentage in OM
    carbon
  93. ___% organic carbon in 17% organic matter soil
    10
  94. C:N ratio affect immobilization or mineralization
    • < 20 :1 mineralization
    • 30: 1 immobilization
  95. 4 basic components of all soil w/ percentage of each:
    • solid -- 50%
    • water--25%
    • air --25%
    • OM--5%
  96. particle sand size
    < .05 mm
  97. particle silt size:
    .05- .002 mm
  98. particle clay size:
    > .002 mm
  99. 6 kingdoms:
    • protista
    • animalia
    • archobacteria
    • euobacteria
    • fungi
    • plantae
  100. 3 greenhouse gases:
    • CO2
    • nitrous oxide
    • methane
  101. 8 states belong to Ogalla aquifer:
    • south dakota
    • wyoming
    • new mexico
    • kansas
    • texas
    • nebraska
    • colorado
    • oklahoma
  102. 3 reasons why soil becomes acidic:
    • leaching in high rainfall area
    • crop removal of Ca & Mg
    • denitrification of ammonia
  103. 4 ways to maintain soil OM
    • prevent soil erosion
    • return crop residue to soil/ no tillage practices
    • adding organic material to soil
    • add green manure
  104. Rhizobium is a special _____
    bacteria
  105. legume plants are:
    • alfalfa
    • clover
  106. bacteria occurs in _______ on lateral root
    nodules
  107. plant give _____ to special bacteria
    energy
  108. cereals 1st crop domesticated b/c of ____
    easy storage
  109. ____ improve pasture
    ryegrass
  110. < __% moisture content required to avoid seed spoil when storing
    14
  111. perennial grow from:
    year to year indefinitely
  112. seuential cropping growing ______ crops one afterother in same year on same land
    2 +
  113. chlorophll in leaf contains ___ & ____
    • N
    • Mg
  114. _____ produce by anaerobic respiration
    butter
  115. straw is:
    dry small grain residue after grain been harvested
  116. most recommended forages in LA:
    • annual ryegrass
    • cereal rye
    • oats
    • dallisgrass
    • bermudagrass
    • bahia grass
  117. Louis Pasteur develeoped what?
    vaccination for animals to immune disease
  118. 3 basic components of all seeds:
    • energy source
    • embryo
    • seed coat
  119. 3 basic chemical components in seeds
    • oil
    • protein
    • carbohydrates
  120. Tetrazotium is:
    dye trurns red to show viability dormant seed
  121. types of producers of seed:
    • breeders
    • foundation
    • registered
    • certified
  122. part of simple leaf
    • petiole
    • axillary bud
    • blade
  123. forbs means:
    broadleaved, herbaceous plant
  124. soilage mean?
    corn or sorghum cut when green & fed directly
  125. ferns & mosses dont have_____
    seeds
  126. ABA stands for?
    abscisic acid
  127. application method of spraying gertilizer on leaves
    foliar
  128. 3 main aquifers in LA
    • sparta
    • chicot
    • southeast
  129. petiole not in ____ leaf
    monocot
  130. sorghum has ______ root
    adventitious
  131. Bermudagrass has _____
    rhizome
  132. Germplasm means?
    genetic material made as seed or living plant, DNA for species or variety

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