The basic structural unit of all plants and animals. Cells are specialized to carry out all the body's basic functions.
Also plasma membrane; the outer covering of a cell.
Able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Cell membranes are semipermeable.
What are the 3 main elements of a cell?
Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Organelles.
The thick fluid, or protoplasm that fills a cell.
Structures that preform specific functions with in a cell.
The organelle with in a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material; in the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A high-energy compound present in all cells, specially muscle cells; when split by enzyme action, it yields energy. Energy is stored by ATP.
What is the structural hierarchy of the body?
A groups of cells that perform a similar function.
The protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissues. Examples are skin, mucous membranes, the lining of the intestinal tract.
Tissue that is capable of contraction when stimulated. Cardiac, smooth and skeletal.
The most abundant tissue; it provides supper, connection and insulation. Examples: Bone, cartilage Fat, Blood.
Tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body.
a group of tissue functioning together.
A group of organs that work together. Example, Cardiovascular with includes the heart, blood vessels and blood.
The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living being.
What are the 10 organ systems?
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady normal internal environment.
The structure of an organism; Body structure.
The functions of an organism; the physical and chemical processes of a living thing.
The total chances that take place during physiological processes.
Negative feedback loop
body mechanism that work to reverse, or compensate for , a pathophysiological process.
What are the control systems?
Endocrine and nervous.
The fluid inside the body cells.
The fluid outside of the body cells. It comprises the intravascular fluid and interstitial fluid.
The fluid with in the circulatory system; blood plasma.
The fluid in the body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system.
A substance that dissolves other substances, forming a solution. In the body that is water.
Normal tension in a cell; the resistance of the skin to deformation.
A substance that , in water, separates into electrically charged particles.
a charged particle; an atom or group of atoms whose electrical charge has changed from neutral to positive or negative by loosing or gaining one or more electrons.
an ion with a positive charge- so called because it will be attached to a cathode, or negative pole.
An ion with a negative charge- so called because it will be attached to an anode, or positive pole.
A substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions.
equal in concentration of solute molecules; solutions may be isotonic to each other.
having a greater concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypertonic to another.
having a lesser concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypotonic to another.
The difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane.
The movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
The passage of a solvent, such as water through a membrane.
Movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser concentration to an area of higher concentration, opposite the normal direction of diffusion.
Diffusion of a substance, such a glucose, through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper" or carrier protein.
the concentration of solute per KG of water.
The concentration of solute per L of water.
The pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to pull water from the other side of the membrane.
A form of osmotic pressure exerted by the larger particles, or colloids, present in blood plasma.
Blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by the heart beat.
movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
the total loss of water from the blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
a high concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH below 7.35
A low concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH above 7.45