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The two general groupings of power are
Personal and formal
_____ power is based on an individual’s position
in an organization
Formal power can arise out of:
- a) the ability to coerce or reward
- b) formal authority
- c) control of information
- d) all of the above
One reacts to _____ power out of fear of the negative
ramifications that might result if one fails to comply.
The opposite of coercive power is:
Legitimate power is based on:
When a bank robber points a gun at a bank employee his base of power is
The power that the College Dean has been granted by
the University over the faculty is termed _____ power.
When your superior offers you a raise if you will
perform additional work beyond the requirements of your job, he/she is exercising
_____ power is based on identification with a person
who has desirable resources or personal traits.
Your physician has advised you to take a series
of medications. You comply because of her _____ power.
The interactionist view of conflict proposes that
functional conflict is _____.
Necesary for effective group performance
T/F In the conflict process, emotions play a minor
role in shaping perceptions.
You have to be directly informed of another’s intent
in order to know how to respond to his or her behavior.
As a conflict-handling intention, avoiding is the
opposite of competing.
- collaboration is opposite of avoiding
- accomidation is opposite of competing
Avoiding encompasses both assertive and
If you place your opponent’s interest above your own,
you are engaging in collaborating.
This is accommodating
Accommodating consists of unassertieness and uncooperativness
It's unassertive an cooperative
Collaboaratin consits of assertieness and coopertivenss
Competing consists of assertiveness and uncooperativeness
Compromising generally relfects a lack of assertivness
This is midrange for both
Avoiding consists of unassertivness and uncooperativnes
In the conflict process, individuals’ intentions are
rigid and will rarely change due to an emotional reaction to the behavior of
the other party.
A task that is subdivided into many sperate jobs is considered to have:
A high degree of work specializtion
Which of the folling is not a benefit achieved from work specializtion
A)decreased time in changing tasks
B)decreased training costs
C)increased investment in machinery
D)increased efficiency and productivity
E)decreased time in putting away tools
Increased investmen in machienry
For much of the first half of the 20th century, managers viewed work specialization as?
An unending source of increaed productivity
This division of an organization into groups according to work functions is an example of ________, the second element of structural organization.
Which one of the following is not one of the primary ways to group jobs?
A plant manager who organizes the plant by separating engineering, accounting, manufacturing, personnel, and purchasing into departments is practicing
AgriProducers has customers all over the United States that need their soil tested in their labs as well as their products for their crops. The crops and soil are different in the various large areas of the nation, such as the West Coast, and the Mid-West. Which type of departmentalization would be best for AgriProducers?
D based off geography because customers are scatterd over a large geograhic area
Proctor & Gamble departmentalizes by Tide, Pampers, Charmin, and Pringles. This is an example of departmentalization by ________.
) Aeronautics Inc., a parts supplier, has departments for government aircraft and contracts, large commercial aircraft
clients, and small personal aircraft clients. This is an example of ________ departmentalization
The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed ________.
Chain of command
inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed
The ________ principle helps preserve the
concept of an unbroken line of authority
- Unity of command
- Saying a person should ahve one and only one superior to whom he is responsible
The unity of command princlple states which of the following?
An individula should provide direction to their employees in a unified fashion
The________ refers to the number of subordinates that a manager directs.
Span of contorl
Which of the following is a drawback of a narrow span
of control? It ________.
Encourages overly tight superisions and discourages employee autonomy
The trend in recent years has been toward_______.
- Widen spans of contorl
- Reduce costs cut overhead, speed decison makind, increase flexibility
are consistent with recent efforts by companies to reduce costs, cut overhead, speed up decision making, increase flexibility, get closer to customers, and empower employees.
Wider spans of control
Which one of the following dichotomies of organizational structure specifically defines where decisions are made?
best definition for centralization is a situation in which decision making ________.
Concentrated at a single point in the org
In an organization that has high centralization, ________.
Top Managers make all the decisions and lower level managers merely carry out directions
- Centralization refers to the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. In entralized organizations, top managers make all the decisions.
- Lower-level managers merely carry out
- their directives.
- Decentralized decision making is pushed down to the managers closest to the action.
The more that lower-level personnel provide input or are actually given the discretion to make decisions, the more _______ there is within an organization.
If a job is highly formalized, it would not include
High employee job discretion
Employee discretion is inversely related to ________.
_____is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization.
Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure?
A) high centralization
B) high horizontal differentiation
C) high employee discretion
A high centraliztion
- The simple structure is not elaborate.
- low degree of epartmentalization
- wide spans of control
- authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization.
- It is a "flat" organization; it usually has only two or three vertical levels
- a loose body of employees
- one individual in whom the decision-making authority is centralized.
The simple structure is most widely practiced in small businesses in which ________.
The owner also manages the company
A bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following except ________.
A) highly routine operating tasks
B) formalized rules and regulations
C) tasks that are grouped into functional departments
D) decentralized decision making
Decentralized decision making
- Key underlying concept is Standardization
- A bureaucracy is an organization structure with highly routine
- operating tasks achieved through specialization
- very formalized rules and regulations,
- Tasks that are grouped into functional departments
- centralized authority
- narrow spans of control
- decision making that follows the chain of command.
The struture that creates dual lines of authority is
- The matrix structure describes an organization structure that
- creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization.
_____is a shared system of meaning held by the organization’s members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
Which of the following is not a characteristic
of organizational culture?
a) attention to detail
c) formality orientation
d) team orientation
e) outcome orientation
C formality orientation
Culture may be aliabaility because it is a barrier to
- Mergers and acqusitions
Alessio's boss doesn't care whether Alessio works at home,
at the office, or from his beach house. All he cares about is that the project is completed on time, on budget, and with exemplary quality. Which characteristic of organizational culture best describes this aspect of Alessio's job?
A) low risk taking
B) high outcome orientation
C) high attention to detail
D) low aggressiveness
E) high stability
B high outcome orietnation
Jose is a manager for a manufacturing company in which
managers are expected to fully document all decisions, and it is important to provide detailed data to support any recommendations. Which characteristic of organizational culture best describes this aspect of Jose's job?
A) low team orientation
B) high aggressiveness
C) low risk taking
D) high stability
E) high people orientation
Low risk taking because want everything documeante dand seems reluctant to take risks
________ orientation is the characteristic of organizational culture that addresses the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
- A company in which management is concerned with high
- productivity, regardless of the impact on employee morale or turnover rates low in people orientation.
In contrasting organizational culture with job satisfaction, organizational culture is a(n) ________ term, while job satisfaction is a(n) ________ term.
The company is dominated by low risk taking and high attention to detail. Jean's department is also committed to high team orientation and provides many team-building activities in which Jean and other department members work together and socialize.
It is a subcoulture shariing core values
Which characteristic is not reflective of subcultures?
A) includes core values of the organization
B) typically defined by department designations
C) includes values shared only within the organization
D) can influence individuals behavior
E) includes values unique to members of a department or
C Includes values shared only within org
Also includes additional values uniquet ot members of department
Terms for strong culuture
- The organization's core values are both intensely held
- and widely shared.
- The more members who accept the core values and the greater their commitment, the stronger the culture and the greater its influence on member behavior because the high degree of sharedness and intensity creates an
- internal climate of high behavioral control.
The unanimity of a strong culture contributes to all of the following except ________.
C) higher product quality
D) organizational commitment
E) close ties between workers within the organization
C higher product quality
A strong culture can act as a substitute for
- High formalization creates predictability, orderliness,
- and consistency.
- A strong culture achieves the same end without the need for
- written documentation.
- Formalization and culture can be viewed as two different
- roads to a common destination.
Culture performs all the following functions except ________.
A) displaying the dominance of particular organizations
B) enhancing social system stability
C) conveying a sense of identity for organization members
D) facilitating commitment to something larger than
E) defining boundaries
As organizations have widened spans of control, flattened
structures, introduced teams, reduced formalization, and empowered employees, the ________ provided by a strong culture ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction.
Culture is most likely to be a liability when ________.
The organizations emvironment is dynamic
In recent years, ________ has become the primary concern in acquisitions and mergers.
The ultimate souce of an orgs culture is
THe orgs founders
All of the following are factors that serve to sustain
organizational cultures except ________.
D) top management
- Three forces play a particularly important part in sustaining a
- culture: selection and orientation practices, the actions of top management, and socialization methods.
The selection process helps sustain the organization's
culture by ________.
Ensuring that candidates fit well within the org
Top management has a major impact on the organization's culture through ________.
Establising norms taht filter down throught the org
The process through which employees are adapted to an
organization's culture is called ________.
The correct order for the stages of the socialization
process is ________.
Prearrival, encounter, metamorphasis
Which of the following is not a means of transmitting culture within an organization?
B) aversion therapy
E) material symbols
B Aversion Theory
Which one of the following terms is not a component
A) material symbols
B) sequenced activities
D) key values
A Material symbols
All of the following are examples of material symbols except
A) top executives' use of the company jet
B) a swimming pool for the employees to use
C) new employee orientations
D) luxury cars for executives
E) private parking spots
C New employee orientations
Which of the following is not a message conveyed by
A) who is important
B) top management's egalitarianism
C) who is going to be hired or fired
D) appropriate risk-taking behavior
E) appropriate authoritarian behavior
C Who is going to be hired or fired
An organizational culture most likely to shape high
ethical standards is one that ________.
A) is high in risk tolerance
B) is low-to-moderate in aggressiveness
C) focuses on means as well as outcomes
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
D all of the above
- The organizational culture most likely to shape high
- ethical standards among its members is one that's high in risk tolerance, low to moderate in aggressiveness, and focused on means as well as outcomes.
What does a positive organizational culture do?
A) uses negative reinforcement and punishment
B) rarely uses rewards
C) emphasizes individual growth
D) emphasizes building on the organization's strengths
E) emphasizes organizational vitality
C emphasizes indivudual growth
- A positive organizational culture emphasizes building on
- employee strengths, rewards more than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth.
Larry has an employee that is amazing at clearly seeing
rules and enforcing them. He has recently promoted her to the lead position in quality assurance. Which aspect of creating a positive organizational culture is Larry utilizing?
A) rewarding more than punishing
B) building on organization strengths
C) emphasize individual growth
D) building on employee strengths
E) emphasizing organizational vitality and growth
D Building on employee strnghts
The degree to which employees are encouraged to be
innovative and take risks is termed aggressiveness.
This is innovations and risk taking
Aggressiveness is the degree to which peoplea re aggressive and competivie tather than easygoing
Individuals with different backgrounds in an organization will tend to describe the organization's culture in similar terms
- Organizational culture represents a common perception the
- organization's members hold. We should expect, therefore, that individuals with different backgrounds or at different levels in the organization will tend to describe its culture in similar terms.
Research demonstrates that subcultures act to undermine the
A strong culture can be a liability for an org
The success of a merger depends most strongly upon the
example set by the top management of the merged organizations.
- All things being equal, whether the acquisition actually
- works seems to have more to do with how well the two organizations' cultures match up.
The most potent means of transmitting culture to employees
are stories, rituals, related symbols, and language.
Culture is transmitted to employees in a number of forms, the most potent being stories, rituals, material symbols, and language
All organizations within an industry use the terminology
designated by the industry so that their employees can move freely from organization to organization.
Because language for each organization is different, new employees may at first be overwhelmed by acronyms and jargon, that, once assimilated, act as a common denominator to unite members of a given culture or subculture
Which of the following is not a primary force for
change in organizations?
B) economic shocks
C) decreasing skill sets
D) social trends
E) the nature of the workforce
C decreasing skill sets
An example of change in the nature of the work force is an increase in ________.
More cultureal diverstiy
A paper sales company designs and offers a new method of
purchasing and shipping commercial quantities of paper through their Web site, versus contacting their sales representative. This is an example of ________.
An example of change in competition is ________.
A) U.S. manufactured Toyota vehicles
B) collapse of Enron Corporation
C) Iraq-U.S. war
D) increased interest in urban living
E) a decrease in interest rates
A US manufacured toyat vehicles
Change activities that are ________ and goal oriented are
termed planned change.
________ are persons who act as catalysts and assume the
responsibility for managing change activities.
It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is
Managing resistance to change that is ________ is extremely challenging.
Which of the following is not a source of individual
resistance to change?
C) fear of the unknown
E) economic factors
- Individual sources of resistance to change are habit,
- security, economic factors, fear of the unknown, and selective information processing.
Organizational sources of resistance to change are structural inertia, processes and formalized regulations, limited focus of change, group inertia,threat to expertise, and threat to established power relationships.
Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic
for dealing with resistance to change?
Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically
assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation?
Education adn communication
- Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee
- resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication
- If employees receive the full facts and clear up
- misunderstandings, resistance should subside.
- Second, communication can help "sell" the need for
- change by packaging it properly.
Using covert influenct to overcome resistance to change is called
If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, this approach is called ________.
combines manipulationa nd participation
Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a
relatively easy way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic?
Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive ways to gain the support of adversaries,
Managers who have spent their entire careers with an
organization and are high in the hierarchy are ________.
often impediments to change
_______is one way to achieve unfreezing of an organization's status quo.
Increasing the driving forces direecting behvior away from the status quo
___________is a change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change
________ is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a
product, process, or service.
Which of the following is not a reason why organic
structures promote innovation?
A) high formalization
B) low vertical differentiation
C) high flexibility
D) low centralization
A high formaliztion
- Organic structures positively influence innovation
- because they're lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization, therefore facilitating the flexibility, adaptation, and cross-fertilization that make the adoption of innovations easier.
Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistnace and ensure idea is implemented
Which of the following has been the most studied
potential source of innovation?
A) cultural variables
B) structural variables
C) human resource factors
B structural varialbes
________ involves correcting errors using past routines and
Single loop learning
Most organizations engage in single-loop learning. When they detect errors, their correction process relies on past routines and present policies
Errors that are corrected by modifying the organization's objectives, policies, and standard routines are part of ________.
Double loop learning
- Learning organizations that use double-loop learning
- correct errors by modifying objectives, policies, and standard routines.
- Double-loop learning challenges deeply rooted assumptions and norms. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a learning
organization? Its employees ________.
A) have standard ways of doing their jobs
B) pursue projects of interest
C) fous on breaking down barriers created by hierarchical
D) think in terms of independent relationships
E) have high levels of technical knowledge
C focus on breaking down barries created by heirchial lebels
5 Basis characterisic of learning orgs
- (1) There exists a shared vision that everyone agrees on;
- (2) People discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs;
- (3) Members think of all organizational processes, activities, functions, and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationships;
- (4) People openly communicate with each other without fear of criticism or punishment;
- (5) People sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental interests to work together to achieve the organization's shared vision.
Which of the following is not a method managers use
to foster a learning organization?
A) Establish a strategy.
B) Redesign the organization's structure.
C) Increase departmental boundaries.
D) Reshape the organization's culture.
E) Encourage functional conflict.
C increas deparment boundaries
Which of the following is not an example of a
A) red tape
B) office politics
C) role conflict
D) time urgency
E) job confusion
D time urgency
Time urgency is a challenge stressor. Hindrance stressors arestressors that keep you from reaching your goals , for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities
What are resources
- Resources are things within an individual's control that
- he or she can use to resolve the demands. Research suggests adequate resources help reduce the stressful nature of demands when demands and resources match.
- Having resources to cope with stress is just as important in offsetting it as
- demands are in increasing it.
Political uncertainties, economic uncertainties, and
technological change are examples of which category of potential sources of stress?
Which of the following is not an organizational
factor related to stress?
A) economic conditions
B) task demands
C) role demands
D) interpersonal demands
E) none of the above
A economic conditions
Jerry is feeling very stressed because his boss expects a
project to be delivered to the client with a very unreasonable deadline. Jerry has to work nights and weekends to make the deadline. Jerry is feeling ________ stress.
- Organizational stress factors include pressures to avoid
- errors or complete tasks in a limited time, work overload, a demanding and insensitive boss, and unpleasant co-workers.
Which of the following is not an individual variable
that influences a person's ability to handle stress?
B) job experience
C) social support
E) marital status
E marital status
The ________ theory indicates that some stress stimulates
the body into action, and people are able to perform well. However, too much stress causes a person to perform poorly.
The logic underlying the inverted U is that low to moderate levels of stress stimulate the body and increase its ability to react. Individuals then often perform their tasks better, more intensely, or more rapidly. But too much stress places unattainable demands on a person, which result in lower performance.
Which of the following is not an effective individual approach to handling stress?
A) using time-management techniques
B) increasing training and skills
C) increasing levels of physical exercise
D) paticipating in relaxation training
E) spending time with friends
B increaing raining an skills
Time managment princples
- (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished,
- (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency,
- (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set, and (4) knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job when you are most alert and
Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee's total physical and mental condition are called ________ programs
Research demonstrates that any effort to resist change is
dysfunctional in terms of organizational effectiveness.
can be positive if it lead to pone dicussiona nd debate
If an individual believes his/her income will be affected
negatively by a particular change, resistance will increase.
Cooptation is a form of both manipulation and
You should expect that long-time career executives will be proponents of change.
False they are impediment to change
Retention forces are those that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
- The restraining forces, which hinder movement away from
- equilibrium, can be decreased in Lewin's three-step model for implementation of successful change.
Organizational behavior (OB) is not a readily definable concept, but a convenient term used to encompass a variety of activities for managing change.
The objectives of survey feedback are to provide subjects
with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others see them.
- One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational
- members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions and solving these differences, is the survey feedback approach.
Innovation is nurtured where there are slack resources.
- Having an abundance of resources allows an organization
- to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting them, and absorb failures.
Double-loop learning is an error correction process that
relies on past routines and present policies.
The organizational factors that cause stress include: task
demands, role demands, and interpersonal demands.
A person's basic disposition is a major private factor that
- Some people thrive on stressful situations, while others
- are overwhelmed by them. Individual difference variables moderate the relationship between potential stressors and experienced stress. At least four variables, perception, job experience, social support, and personality, are relevant.
You have implemented a permanent upward adjustment of salaries for employees who relocate. You are attempting to ________.
Refreeze the change
As a manager in charge of the relocation effort, you are
offering a $2,000 moving bonus for any employee who will go to the new location. In Lewin's terms, you are attempting to ________.
Unfreeze the status quo
You counsel each employee individually, trying to lessen
each person's fears about the move. This is an example of ________.
Removing restaring forces
Despite your attempts to unfreeze the status quo at Mintz,
your employees are still resistant to the relocation. According to Kotter's model, which of the following would most likely help to overcome this problem?
Providing employees eith a list of compelling resons for the move