BIO Final pt 2

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  1. Most of the neurons in the human brain are..?
  2. For a neuron w/initial membrane potential @ -70mV, an ^ in movement of K+ ions of tht neuron's cytoplasm would result in..?
    hyperpolarization of the neuron
  3. "resting" motor neuron is expected to..?
    exhibit a resting potential tht is more negative than the "threshold" potential
  4. Action potentials move along axons..?
    more rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons
  5. Saltatory conduction is a term applied to conduction of impulses...?
    along myelinated nerve fibers
  6. Since the Na-K pump requires energy to operate, it would be a form of this...?
    active transport
  7. Which of these ions is required for fusion of the neurotransmitter vesicle to the presynaptic membrane..?
  8. ability of graded potentials to combine...?
  9. inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) occurs in a membrane made more permeable to..?
    K+ ions
  10. Stages in transmission at a chemical synapse...?
    • 1) action potential depolarizes the membrane of the axon terminal
    • 2) calcium ions rush into neuron's cytoplasm
    • 3) synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft
    • 4) neurotransmitter binds w/receptors associated w./the postsynaptic membrane
    • 5) ligand-gated ion-channel open
  11. inflammatory responses may include..?
    increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area
  12. Histamines trigger dilation of nearby blood vessels, & increase in their permeability..signs?
    • redness
    • heat
    • swelling
  13. Antigens?
    foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies
  14. If newborn were accidentally given a drug tht destroyed the thymus, what would happen...?
    T cells would not mature & differentiate
  15. Which of the following cell types are responsible for initiating a secondary immune response?
    memory cells
  16. It is important for the immune system to do all of the following...EXCEPT..?
    never react against cancer cells
  17. Which of the following situations will helper T cells be activated?
    when a cytotoxic T cell releases cytokines
  18. These cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity & destroy virally infected cells...?
    cytotoxic T cells
  19. Cell type interacts w/ both humoral & cell-mediated immune pathways..?
    helper T cells
  20. Primary function of humoral immunity??
    it produces anitbodies that circulate in body fluids
  21. IgG antibody?
    • most plentiful antibody in circulation in blood
    • crosses the placenta
  22. IgE?
    responsible for the release of histamine from mast cells during allergies
  23. IgA?
    body secretions
  24. IgD?
    found on surface of B cells
  25. IgM?
    • pentamer (10 antigens binding sites)
    • responsible for primary immune response
  26. Blood flow..? HEART
    • vena cava
    • RA
    • ventricle
    • pulmonary circuit
  27. Avg resting stroke vol. of heart is 70ml & beats 72times per min....cardiac output..?
  28. Semilunar valves located..?
    places where blood leaves via AORTA & PULMONARY ARTERIES
  29. Avg blood pressure is lowest..?
    venae cavae
  30. Blood vessel tht has these characteristics: outer layer of connective tissue, thick layer of smooth muscle w/elastic fibers, no valves..?
  31. Meshwork tht forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein...?
  32. Blood is 55% plasma...% water?
  33. QRS wave in ECG respresents...?
    LV contraction
  34. blood returns to LA via..?
    pulmonary arteries
  35. Opposing forces acting to move fluid out of or into capillaries...?
    • blood pressure
    • osmotic pressure
  36. Gene tht exists as 2 alleles (A and a)...type of gamete can a homozygous recessive individual produce.?
  37. Possible genotype of children produced by parents with AA and aa genotypes...?
  38. Best describes a test cross?
    crossing the unknown genotype w/ a known homozygous recessive
  39. DNA is _____ into RNA..?
  40. If woman w/ blood type A has a child w/ blood type O, what is the woman's genotype?
  41. What will be the phenotype ratio of this cross..?
    AaBb X AaBb ?
  42. If Black fur (B) is dominant to white fur (b) & a cat tht is Bb is crossed to one tht is BB, how many white coated cats will be produced?
  43. 9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio is characteristic of..?
    F2 generation of a dihybrid cross
  44. 9:7 phenotype ratio in the F2 generation of sweet pea plants is due to..?
  45. If true breeding white flowering plant is crossed w/ a true breeding red flowering plant & all pink flowers are produced then most likely..?
    incomplete dominance
  46. In large population of widgets, if 5 out of 100 have a recessive genotype then what is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype..?
  47. Stabilizing selection eliminates..?
    extreme phenotypes
  48. Bottleneck effect example..?
    genetic drift
  49. Test cross requires..?
    homozygous recessive
  50. Human blood groups are an example of codominance?
  51. Mendel's 1st law?
    Law of Segregation
  52. Dihybrid cross, expected proportion of offspring that are homozygous recessive..?
  53. Mendel's peas demonstrated..?
  54. Change in frequencies of alleles in gene pool of a population arising from chance events..?
    genetic drift
  55. describes change in allelic frequencies due to influx of new members into population?
    gene flow
  56. In population w/ 2 alleles, A and a, frequency of a is 0.60..what is frequency of heterozygotes in population?
  57. Necessary for a population to be Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium..?
    • 1) mutation
    • 2) no natural selection
    • 3) no genetic drift (no emigration)
    • 4) no change in allele frequency (no immigration)
    • 5) random mating
  58. Fundamental cell type in NS..?
  59. Neurons consists of..?
    • cell body
    • dendrites
    • axon
  60. Crucial to maintaining the resting potential (diff. in electrical charge inside & outside a neuron membrane tht enable the cell to transmit a signal)..?
    transport of Na+ & K+ ions by the Na/K pump b/c if pump stops working, action potentials will not occur
  61. Stimulus can trigger an action potential by..?
    causing Na ions to enter the neuron (b/c a typical stimulus will open gated Na channels permitting Na to enter the cell & depolarizing the neuron)
  62. best describes a nerve signal..?
    sequential movement of ions across the plasma membrane of the neuron represents the nerve impulse
  63. reflects an increase magnitude of membrane potential..?
  64. speed of action potential is greatly increased by the formation in the CNS & PNS ?
    • nodes of Ranvier
    • oligiodendrocytes
    • Schwann cells
  65. Nerve poison tht blocked acetylcholine receptors on dendrites would..?
    prevent binding of a signal tht crossed the synaptic gap (binding of neurotransmitter molecules to their specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane opens ion channels which completes the transmission poison tht blocked the acetylcholine receptors would prevent reception of the signal)
  66. type of neurotransmitter??
    • dopamine => biogenic amines
    • GABA => amino acids
    • NO (nitric oxide) => gas
  67. complex fire/don't fire decision making by neurons is most directly a result..?
    • combination of signals from excitatory & inhibitory synapses
    • (ea. neuron is on the receiving end of thousands of synapses, some excitatory & some inhibitory. At any instant, the 'decision' whether to initiate an action potential is based on the combined effect of ion currents induced by both kinds of synapses)
  68. responsible for initiating a secondary immune response..?
    memory cells
  69. inflammatory responses may include..?
    increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area
  70. both the eye & respiratory tract are protected against infections..?
    secretion of lysozyme onto their surface
  71. differentiate T cells & B cells?
    T cells but not B cells can directly attack & destroy invading pathogens
  72. Involves white blood cells like lymphocytes tht recognize pathogens & elicit a response specific to ea. pathogen tht enters the body..?
    • Acquired immunity
    • also involves both humoral & cell-mediated immune response
  73. Involves the activation & clonal selections of B cells, some of which secrete antibodies into the infected cells & lymph ..?
    humoral response
  74. involves the activation & clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells, which identify & destroy infected cells & cancer cells..?
    cell-mediated response
  75. Dendritic cells & microphages engulf & present antigens, stimulating the activation of other cells of immune system..?
    antigen-presenting cells
  76. Activated....secrete cytokines tht stimulate for the humoral response..?
    helper T cells
  77. Some...give rise to plasma cells which secrete antibodies for the humoral response
    B cells
  78. Active.....bind & induce cell death of infected cells & cancer cells..?
    cytotoxic T cells
  79. Activated cells of the immune system give rise to.....which facilitate the secondary response..?
    memory cells
  80. Antigen-presenting cells?
    trigger the acquired immune response by presenting antigens to helper T cells & cytotoxic T cells & thus activating them (include dendritic cells, macrophages & B cells) -> once activated, helper T cells activate other cells of immune system, including B cells & cytotoxic T cells by secreting proteins=> cytokines
  81. Humoral immune response?
    • B cell binds to antigen & are activated further w/ aid of helper T cells
    • Activated B cells differentiate into plasma cells whcih secrete antibodies & memory cells which can circulate the body for yrs
    • BOTH B & T cells form memory cells tht enable the body to launch a much quicker secondary immune response to an antigen it has encountered before
  82. MHC?
    group of genes tht produces proteins tht present antigen fragment to T cell receptors
  83. Class I MHC?
    expressed by almost all cells of the body & present anitgen fragments synthesized w/in those cells
  84. Class II MHC?
    • made up by few cell-types antigen presenting cells
    • macrophage only
  85. Humoral immune response?
    • B cell
    • Plasma cells
    • Memory B cells
    • helper T cell
  86. Cell-mediated?
    • antigen
    • helper T cell
    • memory helper T cell
    • memory cytotoxic cell
    • active cytotoxic T cell
  87. Molecule form pores in infected cells?
  88. Molecule breakdown proteins in infectedc cells programmed cell death?
  89. B cells function as..?
    • antigen-presenting cell
    • when binds to antigen-presenting cell..takes a few of foreign molecule & then presents those antigen fragments of its surface...helper T cells than can recognize the MHC - antigen fragment complex
    • APC presents antigen to helper T cell & activates w/ aid of cytokines & recognize by B cell, binds, & release
  90. MHC is important in a T cell's ability: ?
    distinguish self from non-self
  91. Properties of CS?
    • circulatory fluid
    • set of interconnecting vessels
    • muscular pump => heart
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BIO Final pt 2
2012-05-09 04:26:57

Final pt 2
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