Biology Chapter 35

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Biology Chapter 35
2012-05-09 00:35:22

Study guide for bio exam
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  1. Describe the role of an apical but, auxiliary bud and apical dominance.
    • An axillary bud is a structure that has potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch
    • An apical bud, or terminal bud, is located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot
    • Apical domincance helps to maintain dormancy in most nonapical buds
  2. Describe the components (tissues) and roles of dermal, vascular and ground tissue in plants.
    • Monocots and eudicots differ in the arrangement of veins, the vascular tissue of leaves
    • Most monocots have parallel veins
    • Most eudicots have bnranching veins
    • Each plant organ has dermal, vascular, and ground tissues
    • Each of these three categories forms a tissue system
    • The vascular tissue system carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots
    • The two vascular tissues are xylem and phloem
    • Xylem conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
    • Phloem transports organic nutrients from where they are made to where they are needed
    • Tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular are the ground tissue system
    • Ground tissue internal to vascular tissue is pith; ground tissue external to the vascular tissue is cortex
    • Ground tissue includes cells specialized for storage, photsynthesis, and support
  3. How do Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Sclerenchyma cells differ?
    • Some major types of plant cells:
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • sclerenchyma
    • Water-conducting cells of the xylem
    • Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem
    • Mature parenchyma cells
    • have thin and flexible primary walls
    • Lack secondary walls
    • Are the least specialized
    • Perform the most metabolic functions
    • Retain the ability to divide and differentiate
    • Collenchyma cells are grouped in strands and help support young parts of the plant shoot
    • They have thicker and uneven cell walls
    • The lack secondary walls
    • These cells prived flexible support without restraining growth
    • Sclerenchyma cells are rigid because of thick secondary walls stregthened with lignin
    • They are dead at functional maturity
    • There are two types:
    • Sclereids are short and irregular in shape and have thich lignified secondary walls