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Do IV routed drugs have a pharmaceutic phase - Yes or No - and why or why not?
No - the pharmaceutic phase is the drug "becoming a solution" so that it may cross the biologic membrane. IV, IM and subq routed drugs are already in solution, hense no pharmaceutic phase.
Decreased AAAA will alter drug elimination.
Drug elimination is most often via the AAAA, although elimination may also take place via the [7 factors?].
- a. kidney
- breast milk
Metabolism or biotransformation may occur in either the AAAA or the BBBB. Most often it takes place in the BBBB.
The term distribution refers to the drug becoming available to body fluids and body tissues. Distribution is influenced by [4 factors?].
- blood flow
- affinity to the tissue
- drug dosage
- drug concentration in the body
Drug absorption can be altered by [8 factors?].
- blood flow
- method of administration
AAAA is accomplished by cells BBBB a drug particle to carry the drug across the membrane.
- a. Pinocytosis
- b. engulfing
Active absorption requires energy to move a drug AAAA.
against a concentration gradient
Passive absorption takes place without energy, by AAAA.
AAAA is the movement of the drug to the body fluids. It takes place by BBBB absorption, active absorption, and DDDD.
- a. Absorption
- b. passive
- c. passive
- d. pinocytosis
The four parts of the AAAA phase achieve drug action. These phases are BBBB, CCCC, metabolism or DDDD, and excretion or EEEE.
- a. pharmacokinetics
- b. absorption
- c. distribution
- d. biotransformation
- e. elimination
In the AAAA phase, drugs become a solution. This phase takes place in the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract; thus it is absent with BBBB administration.
- a. Pharmaceutic
- b. parenteral
The term AAAA refers to the effects of drug concentration on the body systems.
To understand the AAAA of a drug, the nurse must understand the BBBB
- a. pharmacodynamics
- b. different aspects of drug action.
One important aspect is the AAAA, BBBB, and duration of action of a drug.
The onset of action is the time necessary for the drug to reach AAAA effectiveness.
The peak action occurs when the drug reaches the AAAA.
highest blood concentration
The AAAA is the length of time the drug has BBBB
- a. duration of action
- b. pharmacologic effects
Drugs that produce a response are called AAAA. Drugs that block responses are called BBBB.
- a. agonists
- b. antagonists
The term AAAA refers to the lack of specific or selective effects of many drugs. While these drugs work on BBBB, they may affect these receptors in all locations in which the receptor is found. This causes the drug to alter function dependent on where the receptor is located.
- a. nonspecific drug effects
- b. only one type of receptor
AAAA drugs are drugs that activate many different types of receptors, again causing a BBBB from the different receptor sites.
- a. Nonselective
- b. variety of responses
There are AAAA categories of drug action.
Drugs that are AAAA increase the rate of cell activity or gland secretion.
Drugs that are AAAA decrease the rate of cell or gland activity.
Replacement drugs replace essential AAAA no longer existing in the body.
Drugs that inhibit or kill organisms AAAA with cell growth.
Drugs that are considered irritants cause irritation, which affects the AAAA.
The half-life of a drug, or the time it takes for one half of the drug concentration to be eliminated, can be used to AAAA.
guide drug dosage intervals
The safety of drug administration is maintained by using the AAAA and BBBB of drugs.
- a. therapeutic index
- b. therapeutic range
A AAAA therapeutic index refers to a drug with a BBBB safe level. Patients taking these drugs need to have their serum drug levels monitored closely.
Drugs with a AAAA therapeutic index are considered to have a BBBB safe level and do not require routine serum drug level monitoring.
The AAAA range refers to the range of serum drug level that allows the drug to be effective but remain below the level that would cause BBBB.
- a. therapeutic
- b. toxic effect
Monitoring AAAA drug levels is the method used to measure serum drug levels for those drugs with BBBB therapeutic indexes. The peak level is the highest serum concentration, and it measures the CCCC. The trough is the lowest serum concentration, and it measures the DDDD.
- a. peak and trough
- b. narrow
- c. rate of absorption of the drug
- d. rate of drug elimination
Loading doses are used to achieve AAAA drug concentrations.
rapid minimum serum
Drug side effects are effects that are other than the effects intended. AAAA drugs have side effects, some of which are BBBB.
AAAA are more severe than side effects and are always BBBB. They may be mild or severe.
- a. Adverse reactions
- b. undesirable.
Toxicity or toxic effects are identified by monitoring the AAAA of drugs. When a drug exceeds the therapeutic range, BBBB occur.
- a. serum therapeutic ranges
- b. toxic effects of the drug
Drug AAAA refers to decreased effectiveness of a drug over BBBB.
- a. tolerance
- b. the course of therapy