Middle Ages Music Theory
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Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment
A male singing voice in the alto range. Singing in this range requires either a special coal technique called falsette, or a hight extention of the tenor range. (or inbetween tenor and alto)
A held or sustained note
- Type of mass held on a regular church day. Consists of five parts
- 5.Agnus Dei
- Prayers change for special service.
- Consists of 10 parts.
- 5.Alleluia(or Tract)
- 9.Agnus Dei
is a musical setting to a religious text performed in the Roman Catholic Church. It includes prayers, reading from the Bible, and the re-enactment of the last supper. The names comes from the latin "missa" means "dismissal" of the congregation at the end of the service.
- aka. the book of common use
- it contains the most frequently used texts and chants for the mass and office. It was issued in the late 19th century and early 20th century by the monks of Banadictine Abbey
Scale or sequence of notes used as a basis for a composition; major and minor are mode.
- Melodic style with one note to each syllable of text
- example: L'autre d'antan by Ockegem
- Melodic style with two to four notes sung to each syllable of text
- example: The play of virtues (Ordo Virtutum) by Hingen de Bingen
- Many notes (more than 4) to one syllable
- example: Haec dies
Single line texture or melody without accompaniment
Two or more lines of texture or melody without accompaniment
Pope Gregory I
Reignrf from 590-604 A.D He extablished the greek prayer as a part of roman catholic church
An anonymous 9th century (ca 900) treatise that contains the earliest recorded polyphony in music
Hidegard von Bingen
Daughter (10th) of a noble family sent to a church, was a vision seeing saint, scientific+medical writings
Notre Dame School
- Leonin and Perotin are the leaders of the movement, Happened during the 12th and 13th century in Paris
- Earliest form of polyphonic music was called organum.
- aka: Latin Clause
- In Notre Dame polyphonic a self contained section of one oraganum that closes with a cadence.
- A polyphonic section in discant style within organum
When was the rise of polyphony?
Toward the end of the Romanesque period (8501-1150)
Haec Dies (Organum)
- Genre: Organum (Notre Dame Style)
- Composer: Anonymous (in the style of Leonin)
- Date of Compo: ca 1175
- Source of text: Old-Testiment- Psalms
- Language of text: Latin
- Performing forces: Soloist and choir
- texture: Polyphonic
- Number of voices: Two
Hace Dies (continued)
- the lower voice (T) contains the borrowed melody (Cantus Firmus) drawn from the original Haec Dies Chant
- the upper voice is newly composed and is more rhythmically active than the cantus firmus
- organal style, discant style, and monophonic sections
- 13th century origins
- Toward the end of the 13th century, musicians began writing new texts to the previously text less upper voice of organism. The resulted (this addition of these texts) was a poly textual composision know as the motet
O Mitissina/Virgo/Haec Dies
- Written in: 13the century
- composer: Anon.
- Voices/Text: each with different Latin poem
- O mitissima (o sweetest)-Top voice
- Virgo (Virgin Mary)- middle voice
- Haec Dies (This is the day)-bottom voice
- Characterisitics: Polyphonic, all voices rhythmic
- Bottom voice (T) with chant notes, singing 2 words (Haec Dies) Only melismatic style. The Haec Dies unforls with a repeated rhythm of long-long-short-long (ostinato pattern)
- The top two voices frequent crossing each other in a lively exchange.
- The motet is in Triple meter, symbolized the perfection of Trinity - Holy father, Holy Sun, Holy Spirt
The opening and closing sounds and cadences are based on fifths and octaves.
Ce fut en mai
- aka: In Early May
- Trouvere song, Medieval chanson
- By: Moniot d'Arras (13th century)
D'Arras was monk who worked in the Abbey of St. Vaast in Arras and he was one of the last trouveres. He wrote bothe secular and sacred songs.
- The poem talkes about a unhappy lover who finds peace in religion. Does not even try to express the sadness in the text.
- It is a type of strophic song structure same melody for each verse with 5 verses, each having 12 lines in monophonic text. It is accompaniment played my psaltery, dulcimer and vielle.
AABB From is 2 short sections each repeated. A brief instrumental interlude is repeated between the starzas.
A Zither, an instrument with 4 to 5 melody strings
strings are struck with little hammers instead of the being plucked.
Early type of violin (ancestor)
- Became secretary to john luzembourg, King of Bohemia; traveled all over Europe
He wrote Messe de Nostre Dame
Ars Nova I
- The new art
- in the beginning of th 14th centure a new concept of life art and beauty was developed in Frnahc. and later in Italy
- Writers and painter discovered the beauties of nature and the ideas of simple life.
- Composers used more secular thatn sacred themes, and brought changes in rhythm, meter, harmony, and counterpoint.
- in this new development, music became ecpressively free in melody, harmony and rhythm.
Ars nova II
- the "new art" or "new technique" was the title of a treatise written about 1322-23 by the French Composer and poet Philippe de Vitry, Bishop of Meaus (1291-1361)
- The tearm came to be used to denote the musical style in France through the First halp of the 14th centry.
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