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What does the word "renaissance" mean?
Who first used the term?
Jules Michelet used the term in his "History of France" published in 1855.
What time span does the Renaissance cover?
Roughly from the 1400s to around 1600, although it developed at different rates throughout Europe.
Where did the Renaissance start?
Which areas of Europe were the last to be influenced by Renaissance ideas?
Which period of history preceded the Renaissance?
In detail, list 4 causes of the Renaissance.
- 1) Trade- more voyages of discovery and improved transport meant that people came made contact with other cultures, introducing them to different ideas. Trade also created more wealth for more people who spent their money on fashion and art.
- 2)Printing was invented around 1450 and allowed a quick and cheap way to produce books therefore speeding up the spread of ideas.
- 3) The classical ages of ancient Greece and Rome were rediscovered inspiring Renaissance thinkers, artists and writers.
- 4) The fall of Constantinople in 1453 to the Ottoman Empire forced the Greek ruler out of what is today modern day Turkey. Many Greeks fled to Europe bringing their skills and ideas with them.
- 5) Cities developed, particularly around trade centres. These allowed people to mix, exchange ideas and practice arts. Universities began to develop in these places.
- 6) Humanism: a movement that placed an emphasis on understanding the world from a human perspective rather than a religious one.
What impact did Humanism have on society?
- 1) Placed less emphasis on following church rules to gain reward in heaven.
- 2) Encouraged people to question established ideas.
- 3)human achievements were celebrated more.
Copernicus (1473-1543) was a Polish astrologer. What theory did he develop and who did this upset?
He argued that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun rather than the other way around.
His theory upset the church authorities.
What was the name of the Italian astrologer who followed Copernicus' teachings.
What was Galileo forced to do?
Swear that Copernicus' teachings were falso on threat of death.
Which other Italian astrologer suffered by following Copernicus' teachings?
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600). he was burnt to death for following Copernicus' theory.
In what year and city ws Leonardo da Vinci born?
What was he most famous for?
Painting the Mona Lisa and the roof of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. he also sketched many inventions that have now become a reality e.g helicopter and parachute.
Name 3 inventions from the Renaissance that we still use today/
- 1) Self-flushing toilet
- 2) Spectacles (1280)
- 3) Clear window glass (1400)
- 4) Pencil (1500)
- 5) Thermometer (1593)
- 6) Telescope (1608)
- 7) Parachute (1617)
Who was the first European explorer to sail around the southern tip of Africa in 1497?
What nationality was he?
Vasco da Gama
Who was the Spanish explorer who set sail in 1519 in an attempt to circumnavigate the globe?
What happened to him?
He was killed in the Phillippines when he became invloved in a battle with local inhabitatnts.
In what year was what year was Wiliam Shakespeare born?
What was he famous for?
Writing plays and poetry.
Name 4 of his plays.
- King Lear
- The Merchant of Venice
- Much Ado About Nothing
- Henry V
- Julius Caeser
Why did the Renaissance fade?
What took its place?
In Italy its decline started in the early 1500s. The church began to attack the lavish lifestyles of the wealthy and several wars started over Europe.
Italy itself was invaded several times making living as an artist difficult. Many artists, writers and thinkers fled to other countries.
It is generally considered that the Renaissance ended by 1650 to be replaced by a period called the Enlightenment.
What was the driving force of the Enlightenment?
Empiricism or the rise of scientific pursuit of knowledge to explain how the world worked weakening the position of beliefs based on tradition and superstition.