Staley Final

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Staley Final
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2012-05-10 11:42:18
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  1. Costs of production borne not by the enterprise that causes them but society.
    externalities
  2. A clause in Article I, Section 8 of the constitution that gives congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations.
    commerce clause
  3. A regulatory agency run by a small group of commisioners independent of politcal control.
    independent commission
  4. A regulatory agency in the executive branch run by a single admin.
    executive agency
  5. The removal or substantial reduction of the body of regulation covering an industry.
    deregulation
  6. A program that gave federal regulators power to exchange funds for an ownership interest in banks and corps.
    troubled assest relief program
  7. Gov't activity that guides the behavior of citizens, groups and corps to reach economic or social goals.
    regulation
  8. A decree issued by an agency to implement a law passed by congress.
    rule
  9. A daily gov't publication containing proposed rules by regulatory agencies and preseidential exec. orders.
    federal register
  10. A rule with an annual effect on the economy of $100 mill or more.
    significant regulatory action
  11. A reference work that compiles regulations of all agencies in a series of volumes.
    code of federal regulations
  12. Information in nonbinding documents intended to clarify official regulations.
    guidance
  13. The general rule that federal courts should defer to agency rules that are based on reasonable interpretations of ambiguous statutes.
    chevron doctrine
  14. An entity hq in one country that does business in one or more foreign countries.
    multinational corp
  15. The economic policy of lowering tariffs and other barriers to encourage trade and investment.
    liberalization
  16. As defined by United Nations, a parent firm that controls the assets of affiliated entities in foreign countries.
    transnational corp
  17. Bus entities in foreign countries controlled by parent trans corps.
    foreign affiliates
  18. The avg of three ratios: foreign ass to total ass; foreign sales to total sales; foreign employment to total employment.
    transnationality index (TNI)
  19. Funds invested by a parent MNC for starting, acquiring or expanding an affiliate in a foreign nation.
    foreign direct investment
  20. The limited, speculative purchase of stocks and bonds in a foreign company by individuals or equity funds.
    portfolio investment
  21. A gov't entity that invests the savings of a nation.
    sovereign wealth fund
  22. Voluntary, aspirational statements by MNC that set forth standards for foreign ops.
    international codes of conducts
  23. A 1977 code of conduct that required MNC in South Africa to do bus in nondiscriminatory way.
    sullivan principles
  24. Statements of philosophy, policy, and principle found in nonbinding international agreements that over time, gain legitamacy as guidelines for interpreting the hard law.
    soft law
  25. A treaty that requires nations to preserve biological diversity by promoting sustainable econ activity.
    convention on bio diversity
  26. A set of 27 principles for sustainable development that emerged from the 1992 earth summit.
    rio declaration
  27. The required annual report of a company participating in the global compact.
    communication on progress
  28. The act of a corp cloaking its lack of social responsibility.
    bluewashing
  29. A 1789 law permitting foreign citizens to litigate, in a fed court, wrongful actions occuring anywhere in the world.
    alien tort claims act
  30. Growth in networks of economic, politcal, social, military, scientific or environ interdependance to span worldwide distances.
    globalization
  31. A policy of increasing nat'l power by managing the econ to create a trade surplus.
    mercantilism
  32. A tax or duty charged by a gov't on goods moved across a border.
    tariff
  33. A policy of nat'l self sufficiency and econ independence.
    autarky
  34. A trade negotiation in which multiple nations seek consensus on an agreement that will apply equally to all
    multinational trade negotiation
  35. A principle enacted in some trade agreements requiring that if one participant extends any benfit to another, that participant must extend the same benefit to all.
    most favored nation
  36. Equal treatment for imported and local goods in a domestic market.
    nat'l treatment
  37. A set of econ policies prescribed to correct flaws.
    structural adjustment program
  38. A set of free market policies imposed on developing nations by the IMF and world bank.
    washington consensus
  39. The conditions that accompanied world bank and IMF loans.
    conditionalities
  40. A trade agreement in which member countries eliminate import duties and other barriers to trade
    free trade agreement
  41. A bloc of nations that form a free trade agreement.
    customs union
  42. The flow of goods and services across borders unhindered by gov't restrictions.
    free trade
  43. The theory that having a cluster of similar producers gives a nation special advantage over others.
    competitive advantage of nations
  44. Efficiency and the general economic welfare are optimized when each country produces that for which it enjoys a cost advantage.
    law of comparative advantage
  45. The use of trade barriers to shield domestic industries from foreign competitors.
    protectionism
  46. total exports is less than the value of its total imports.
    trade deficit
  47. A gov't policy to shape the economy by promoting companies or sectors.
    industrial policy
  48. Exporting a product at a price below the price it normally sells for in its home market.
    dumping
  49. Laws that require or influence gov't agencies at all levels
    buy american laws
  50. Any impediment to merchandise imports aside from customs duties.
    nontariff barriers
  51. The debasement of integrity
    corruption
  52. small amounts of money demanded by minor officials
    facilitating payments
  53. anything of value improperly requested or given
    bribe
  54. the act of accompanying the request for a bribe with a threat of loss of business
    extortion
  55. a fed program set up in 1980 to clean p toxic waste
    superfund
  56. the presence of substances in environment
    pollution
  57. a stat measure combining in one number years lost to premature mortality
    disability adjusted life (DALY)
  58. animated interactive realm of plants, animals and microorganisms
    ecosystem
  59. productivity of natural ecosystems in creating food and fiber and in regulating climate, water etc
    ecosystem service
  60. nonpolluting economic growth that raises standards of living
    sustainable development
  61. inverted u-shaped curve illustarting GDP
    environmental Kuznets curve
  62. theory that humans are separate from nature because they have the power of reason
    dualism
  63. belief that history is a narrative of improvement in which humanity moves from lower to higher
    progress
  64. econ in which private individs and corps own the means of production to compete in free market under conditions of limited restraint by gov't; nature is valued as an input
    capitalism
  65. ethical philosophy of the greatest good for the greatest number
    utilitarianism
  66. theory that humans are part of an ethical community that includes not only other human but all elements of natural environment
    land ethic
  67. theory that rejects human domination of nature and holds that humans only have equal rights
    deep ecology
  68. bias by humans toward members of their own species
    speciesism
  69. six natural substances in large quantities that cause substandard air quality
    criteria pollutants
  70. gases that evaporate from liquid or solid carbon-based compounds
    volatile organic compounds
  71. small particles formed in the atmosphere by photochemicals
    condensibles
  72. number of molecules of a chemical in 1 million
    parts per million (PPM)
  73. chemical emmisions that pose a health risk
    hazardous air pollutants
  74. a performance standard used by EPA to control emmsions of hazardous
    maximum achievable control technology
  75. deposition of acids formed when sulfur and nitrogen compounds undergo chemical reactions
    acid rain
  76. inert, colorless, odorless gas
    radon
  77. family of gases containing elements, chlorine, flourine, and carbon used as refrigerants
    chlorofluoro-carbons
  78. atmospheric gases that absorb energy radiated from the earth
    greenhouse gases
  79. a treated or untreated wastewater discharge from industrial facility
    effluent
  80. discrete source of effluent such as min, factory, ship or pipeline
    point source
  81. probability existing somewhere btwn 0-100% that harm will occur
    risk
  82. scientific process of discovering and weighing dangers
    risk assessment
  83. process of deciding which regulatory action to protect the public
    risk mgmt
  84. process of establishing a link btwn a substance and human disease
    hazard assessment
  85. an agent capable of initiating cancer
    carinogen
  86. a statistica survey designed to show a relationship btwn death and sickness
    epidemiological study
  87. quantitative estimate of how toxic a substance is
    dose-response assessment
  88. to infer the value of an unkown state from the value of another state that is known
    extrapolation
  89. relationship in which adverse health affects increase or decrease with the amount of exposure to toxic
    linear dose-response rate
  90. exposure point greater than zero
    threshold
  91. study of how much of a substance humans absorb through inhaling
    exposure assessment
  92. systematic id, quantification of social costs and social benefits
    cost-benefit analysis
  93. method for assigning a price to ecological goods or services
    contingent value
  94. dollar amount that people exposed to a risk
    value of statiscal life
  95. practice of regulating by setting uniform standards and using penalties to force compliance
    command and control regulation
  96. practice of harnessing market forces to motivate compliance with goals
    market incentive regulation
  97. substitutes of revenues from taxes on pollution for revenues
    environment tax reform
  98. emissions are capped and sources must hold tradable permits
    cap and trade
  99. mechanism in which an emission allowance for CO2e is a traded commodity
    carbon market
  100. projects that compensate for all or part of a company's green house gas
    carbon offsets
  101. a carbon offset program set up under the kyoto protocol
    clean development mechanism
  102. an EPA program that requires facilities handling any of 650 hazardous chemicals
    toxic release inventory
  103. regulation w/o legal compulsion or sanctions
    voluntary regulation
  104. a set of methods and procedures for aligning corporate strats, policies, and ops with principles that protect ecosystems
    environment mgmt system
  105. a standard for an envmt mgmt system created by an intl standard setting body
    ISO 14001
  106. when industrial activity poses a risk to humn or ecosys, prudence calls for restraint
    precautionary principle
  107. a wave of new challenging ideas based on human reason and scientific inquiry
    enlightenment
  108. the idea, arising in the enlightenment, that human beings are ends in themselves
    individualism
  109. an emphasis on material objects or money that displaces spiritual, aesthetic or philosophical values
    materialism
  110. a situation arising when an indivi sits on the board of directors of two or more corps
    director interlock
  111. doctrine in the law of torts that covers redress for injuries caused by defective products
    product liability
  112. a private wrong committed by one personagainst another
    tort
  113. unintentional failure to act as a respnsible person exercising ordinary care
    negligence
  114. relationship giving parties a common interest under the law
    privity
  115. contract in which the seller guarantees the nature of product
    warranty
  116. explicit claim made from manuf to buyer
    express warranty
  117. unwritten warranty
    implied warranty
  118. theory that liability exists, even in the absence of negligence
    strict liability
  119. large cohort of workers born btwn 1946 and 1964
    baby boomers
  120. number of children a woman must have on avg to assure that one daughter survives
    replacement fertility rate
  121. any shift in the proportions of agriculutral, goods producing and service occupations in econ
    structural change
  122. the sector that includes farming, fishing and forestry
    agriculutral sector
  123. econ sector that includes manufact, mining and construction
    goods-producing sector
  124. sector of occupations that add value to manufact goods
    service sector
  125. any sequence of actions that adds value to product or service
    business process
  126. transfer of work from within a company to outside supplier
    outsourcing
  127. transfer of work from a domestic to foreign location
    outshoring
  128. agreement by which employee exchanges his or her labor
    employee contract
  129. freedom of employees to negotiate the employment contract
    liberty of contract
  130. theory in law that an employment contract can be ended by either the employer or employee
    employment at will
  131. japanese company that operates on a model analogous to a family
    community firm
  132. a slowly rising wage scale based largely on seniority that allows for small differentials based on ability and provides a comfortable income fit
    nenko curve
  133. japanese word for death
    karoshi
  134. form of industry-labor-gov't cooperation in which gov't strongly regulates th labor market to secure expansive rights
    social welfare model
  135. german term meaning short work
    kurzarbeit
  136. nonwage costs, including payments for social security, health insurance and payroll taxes
    social welfare costs
  137. four fundamental standards to protect basic worker rights
    core labor standards
  138. the ability to make quick and smooth shifts of workers into and out of jobs
    labor flexibility
  139. rights to which all humans are entitled
    natural rights
  140. rights bestowed by gov't
    civil rights
  141. belief that each race has distinctive cultural characteristics and that on'es is superior to others
    racism
  142. measures enacted in the south from 1877 to 1950 legalizing segregation
    jim crow laws
  143. inherent power of state gov't to regulate econ and social relationships for the welfare
    police power
  144. racially segregated facilities were not inherently unequal
    separate but equal
  145. unequal treatment of employees based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin
    disparate treatment
  146. discrimination caused by policies that apply to everyone but have the effect of disadvantaging a protected group
    disparate impact
  147. legal defense a company can use to fight a disparate impact charge
    business necessity
  148. statistical test for disparate impact; failed test when blacks or women are selected at a rate lower than 80 percent
    80 percent rule
  149. policies that seek out, encourage, and sometimes give preferential treatment to employees in groups protected by title vii
    affirmative action
  150. pattern or practice of individual acts or rules in a corporate culture that permits discrimination
    systematic discrimination
  151. sexual activities is asked in order to get a job
    quid pro quo
  152. programs to recruit from diverse groups
    diversity mgmt
  153. suppoert network formed by employees who personify an attribute associated with discrimnation, stereotyping or social isolation
    affinity group
  154. exercise of authority over members of the corporate community
    corporate governance
  155. doc issued by a state gov't to create a corp
    corporate charter
  156. legal duty of a rep to manage property in the interest of the owner
    fiduciary responsibility
  157. rules of corporate governance adopted by corporations
    bylaws
  158. a form stockholders mark giving mgmt the right to vote their shares
    proxy card
  159. a booklet of info sent to stockholders
    proxy statement
  160. statute enacted to prevent financial fraud
    sarbanes-oxley act of 2002
  161. financing transaction in which one firm lends assets to another firm in exchange for cash in an agreement to purchase back
    repurchase agreement
  162. statute to reform finanicla regulation and prevent a recurrence of 2007-2008 financial crisis
    dodd-frank act
  163. directors who are employees of the company
    inside directors
  164. directors who are not company employees
    outside directors
  165. outside directors of corp who do not have business dealings with that would impair their impartiality
    independent directors
  166. independent director who presides over meetings of non-mgmt directors
    lead director
  167. chairman of the board who is not an exec of the corp
    nonexec chairman
  168. the right to buy shares of a companys stock at a fixed or grant price
    stock option
  169. price at which a specified number of shares can be bought
    grant price
  170. date when stock options can be exercised by purchasing
    vesting date
  171. shares of company stock awarded after a fixed period of years
    shares performance
  172. a grant of stock with restrictions
    restricted stock
  173. setting the exercise price of stock options at the price on a date before the date they were granted
    backdating

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