Card Set Information
Costs of production borne not by the enterprise that causes them but society.
A clause in Article I, Section 8 of the constitution that gives congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations.
A regulatory agency run by a small group of commisioners independent of politcal control.
A regulatory agency in the executive branch run by a single admin.
The removal or substantial reduction of the body of regulation covering an industry.
A program that gave federal regulators power to exchange funds for an ownership interest in banks and corps.
troubled assest relief program
Gov't activity that guides the behavior of citizens, groups and corps to reach economic or social goals.
A decree issued by an agency to implement a law passed by congress.
A daily gov't publication containing proposed rules by regulatory agencies and preseidential exec. orders.
A rule with an annual effect on the economy of $100 mill or more.
significant regulatory action
A reference work that compiles regulations of all agencies in a series of volumes.
code of federal regulations
Information in nonbinding documents intended to clarify official regulations.
The general rule that federal courts should defer to agency rules that are based on reasonable interpretations of ambiguous statutes.
An entity hq in one country that does business in one or more foreign countries.
The economic policy of lowering tariffs and other barriers to encourage trade and investment.
As defined by United Nations, a parent firm that controls the assets of affiliated entities in foreign countries.
Bus entities in foreign countries controlled by parent trans corps.
The avg of three ratios: foreign ass to total ass; foreign sales to total sales; foreign employment to total employment.
transnationality index (TNI)
Funds invested by a parent MNC for starting, acquiring or expanding an affiliate in a foreign nation.
foreign direct investment
The limited, speculative purchase of stocks and bonds in a foreign company by individuals or equity funds.
A gov't entity that invests the savings of a nation.
sovereign wealth fund
Voluntary, aspirational statements by MNC that set forth standards for foreign ops.
international codes of conducts
A 1977 code of conduct that required MNC in South Africa to do bus in nondiscriminatory way.
Statements of philosophy, policy, and principle found in nonbinding international agreements that over time, gain legitamacy as guidelines for interpreting the hard law.
A treaty that requires nations to preserve biological diversity by promoting sustainable econ activity.
convention on bio diversity
A set of 27 principles for sustainable development that emerged from the 1992 earth summit.
The required annual report of a company participating in the global compact.
communication on progress
The act of a corp cloaking its lack of social responsibility.
A 1789 law permitting foreign citizens to litigate, in a fed court, wrongful actions occuring anywhere in the world.
alien tort claims act
Growth in networks of economic, politcal, social, military, scientific or environ interdependance to span worldwide distances.
A policy of increasing nat'l power by managing the econ to create a trade surplus.
A tax or duty charged by a gov't on goods moved across a border.
A policy of nat'l self sufficiency and econ independence.
A trade negotiation in which multiple nations seek consensus on an agreement that will apply equally to all
multinational trade negotiation
A principle enacted in some trade agreements requiring that if one participant extends any benfit to another, that participant must extend the same benefit to all.
most favored nation
Equal treatment for imported and local goods in a domestic market.
A set of econ policies prescribed to correct flaws.
structural adjustment program
A set of free market policies imposed on developing nations by the IMF and world bank.
The conditions that accompanied world bank and IMF loans.
A trade agreement in which member countries eliminate import duties and other barriers to trade
free trade agreement
A bloc of nations that form a free trade agreement.
The flow of goods and services across borders unhindered by gov't restrictions.
The theory that having a cluster of similar producers gives a nation special advantage over others.
competitive advantage of nations
Efficiency and the general economic welfare are optimized when each country produces that for which it enjoys a cost advantage.
law of comparative advantage
The use of trade barriers to shield domestic industries from foreign competitors.
total exports is less than the value of its total imports.
A gov't policy to shape the economy by promoting companies or sectors.
Exporting a product at a price below the price it normally sells for in its home market.
Laws that require or influence gov't agencies at all levels
buy american laws
Any impediment to merchandise imports aside from customs duties.
The debasement of integrity
small amounts of money demanded by minor officials
anything of value improperly requested or given
the act of accompanying the request for a bribe with a threat of loss of business
a fed program set up in 1980 to clean p toxic waste
the presence of substances in environment
a stat measure combining in one number years lost to premature mortality
disability adjusted life (DALY)
animated interactive realm of plants, animals and microorganisms
productivity of natural ecosystems in creating food and fiber and in regulating climate, water etc
nonpolluting economic growth that raises standards of living
inverted u-shaped curve illustarting GDP
environmental Kuznets curve
theory that humans are separate from nature because they have the power of reason
belief that history is a narrative of improvement in which humanity moves from lower to higher
econ in which private individs and corps own the means of production to compete in free market under conditions of limited restraint by gov't; nature is valued as an input
ethical philosophy of the greatest good for the greatest number
theory that humans are part of an ethical community that includes not only other human but all elements of natural environment
theory that rejects human domination of nature and holds that humans only have equal rights
bias by humans toward members of their own species
six natural substances in large quantities that cause substandard air quality
gases that evaporate from liquid or solid carbon-based compounds
volatile organic compounds
small particles formed in the atmosphere by photochemicals
number of molecules of a chemical in 1 million
parts per million (PPM)
chemical emmisions that pose a health risk
hazardous air pollutants
a performance standard used by EPA to control emmsions of hazardous
maximum achievable control technology
deposition of acids formed when sulfur and nitrogen compounds undergo chemical reactions
inert, colorless, odorless gas
family of gases containing elements, chlorine, flourine, and carbon used as refrigerants
atmospheric gases that absorb energy radiated from the earth
a treated or untreated wastewater discharge from industrial facility
discrete source of effluent such as min, factory, ship or pipeline
probability existing somewhere btwn 0-100% that harm will occur
scientific process of discovering and weighing dangers
process of deciding which regulatory action to protect the public
process of establishing a link btwn a substance and human disease
an agent capable of initiating cancer
a statistica survey designed to show a relationship btwn death and sickness
quantitative estimate of how toxic a substance is
to infer the value of an unkown state from the value of another state that is known
relationship in which adverse health affects increase or decrease with the amount of exposure to toxic
linear dose-response rate
exposure point greater than zero
study of how much of a substance humans absorb through inhaling
systematic id, quantification of social costs and social benefits
method for assigning a price to ecological goods or services
dollar amount that people exposed to a risk
value of statiscal life
practice of regulating by setting uniform standards and using penalties to force compliance
command and control regulation
practice of harnessing market forces to motivate compliance with goals
market incentive regulation
substitutes of revenues from taxes on pollution for revenues
environment tax reform
emissions are capped and sources must hold tradable permits
cap and trade
mechanism in which an emission allowance for CO2e is a traded commodity
projects that compensate for all or part of a company's green house gas
a carbon offset program set up under the kyoto protocol
clean development mechanism
an EPA program that requires facilities handling any of 650 hazardous chemicals
toxic release inventory
regulation w/o legal compulsion or sanctions
a set of methods and procedures for aligning corporate strats, policies, and ops with principles that protect ecosystems
environment mgmt system
a standard for an envmt mgmt system created by an intl standard setting body
when industrial activity poses a risk to humn or ecosys, prudence calls for restraint
a wave of new challenging ideas based on human reason and scientific inquiry
the idea, arising in the enlightenment, that human beings are ends in themselves
an emphasis on material objects or money that displaces spiritual, aesthetic or philosophical values
a situation arising when an indivi sits on the board of directors of two or more corps
doctrine in the law of torts that covers redress for injuries caused by defective products
a private wrong committed by one personagainst another
unintentional failure to act as a respnsible person exercising ordinary care
relationship giving parties a common interest under the law
contract in which the seller guarantees the nature of product
explicit claim made from manuf to buyer
theory that liability exists, even in the absence of negligence
large cohort of workers born btwn 1946 and 1964
number of children a woman must have on avg to assure that one daughter survives
replacement fertility rate
any shift in the proportions of agriculutral, goods producing and service occupations in econ
the sector that includes farming, fishing and forestry
econ sector that includes manufact, mining and construction
sector of occupations that add value to manufact goods
any sequence of actions that adds value to product or service
transfer of work from within a company to outside supplier
transfer of work from a domestic to foreign location
agreement by which employee exchanges his or her labor
freedom of employees to negotiate the employment contract
liberty of contract
theory in law that an employment contract can be ended by either the employer or employee
employment at will
japanese company that operates on a model analogous to a family
a slowly rising wage scale based largely on seniority that allows for small differentials based on ability and provides a comfortable income fit
japanese word for death
form of industry-labor-gov't cooperation in which gov't strongly regulates th labor market to secure expansive rights
social welfare model
german term meaning short work
nonwage costs, including payments for social security, health insurance and payroll taxes
social welfare costs
four fundamental standards to protect basic worker rights
core labor standards
the ability to make quick and smooth shifts of workers into and out of jobs
rights to which all humans are entitled
rights bestowed by gov't
belief that each race has distinctive cultural characteristics and that on'es is superior to others
measures enacted in the south from 1877 to 1950 legalizing segregation
jim crow laws
inherent power of state gov't to regulate econ and social relationships for the welfare
racially segregated facilities were not inherently unequal
separate but equal
unequal treatment of employees based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin
discrimination caused by policies that apply to everyone but have the effect of disadvantaging a protected group
legal defense a company can use to fight a disparate impact charge
statistical test for disparate impact; failed test when blacks or women are selected at a rate lower than 80 percent
80 percent rule
policies that seek out, encourage, and sometimes give preferential treatment to employees in groups protected by title vii
pattern or practice of individual acts or rules in a corporate culture that permits discrimination
sexual activities is asked in order to get a job
quid pro quo
programs to recruit from diverse groups
suppoert network formed by employees who personify an attribute associated with discrimnation, stereotyping or social isolation
exercise of authority over members of the corporate community
doc issued by a state gov't to create a corp
legal duty of a rep to manage property in the interest of the owner
rules of corporate governance adopted by corporations
a form stockholders mark giving mgmt the right to vote their shares
a booklet of info sent to stockholders
statute enacted to prevent financial fraud
sarbanes-oxley act of 2002
financing transaction in which one firm lends assets to another firm in exchange for cash in an agreement to purchase back
statute to reform finanicla regulation and prevent a recurrence of 2007-2008 financial crisis
directors who are employees of the company
directors who are not company employees
outside directors of corp who do not have business dealings with that would impair their impartiality
independent director who presides over meetings of non-mgmt directors
chairman of the board who is not an exec of the corp
the right to buy shares of a companys stock at a fixed or grant price
price at which a specified number of shares can be bought
date when stock options can be exercised by purchasing
shares of company stock awarded after a fixed period of years
a grant of stock with restrictions
setting the exercise price of stock options at the price on a date before the date they were granted