Mneumonics and stories

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mycards2014
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153161
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Mneumonics and stories
Updated:
2012-06-13 14:24:24
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USMLE mneumonics
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From review books and self-made
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  1. DNA viruses
    • Pardon PaPa As He Has Pox
    • Parvovirus - ssDNA, B19
    • Papilloma -
    • Polymavirus
    • Adenovirus
    • Hepadnavirus - hep B
    • Herpes - HSV, CMV, EBV, VZV
    • Poxvirus - variola, vaccinia, mulluscum contagiosum

    Smallest to largest, first four are naked.
  2. Picornaviruses
    • PEECo RnA viruses
    • Polio
    • Entero
    • Echo
    • Coxsackie
    • Rhino
    • Hep A
  3. Positive sense RNA viruses
    • Call Pico and Flo To Come Right away!
    • Calcivirus - norwalk
    • Hepevirus - hep E
    • Picornavirus - PEECo RnA virus
    • Flavivirus - yellow fever, dengue, west nile
    • Togavirus - rubella
    • Coronavirus - SARS
    • Retrovirus - HIV, HTLV

    Smallest to largest, first three are naked
  4. Negative sense RNA viruses
    • Pain Results From Our Bunions Always! And pain is a negative thing!
    • Paramyxovirus - mumps, measles, RSV, parainflu
    • Rhabovirus - rabies, VSV
    • Filovirus - ebola
    • Orthomyxovirus - influ
    • Bunyavirus - hantavirus
    • Arenavirus -
  5. Needs Cysteine to grow
    • The four sisters, "ELLA", worship in the Cysteine chapel.
    • Francisella
    • Legionella
    • Brucella
    • Pasturella
  6. Bugs with capsules
    • Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules
    • Strep. pneumo
    • Kleb pneumo
    • H. influ
    • P. aeruginosa
    • Neiseria meningitidis
    • Crytococcus neoformans
  7. Bugs with urease
    • These bugs will PUNCH your kidneys
    • Proteus
    • Ureaplasma
    • Nocardia
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Heliobacter
  8. Catalase (+) bugs
    • Give catalase bugs some SPACE!
    • Staph
    • P. aeruginosa
    • Aspergillus
    • Candida
    • Enterobacteriaceae
  9. Side effects of atropine!
    • HOT as a hare
    • BLIND as a bat
    • DRY as a bone
    • RED as a beet
    • MAD as a hatter
  10. Effects of cytokines
    • Hot T-bone stEAk
    • IL1: fever
    • IL2: stimulates Tcells
    • IL3: stimulates bone marrow
    • IL4: Stimulates IgE (and IgG)
    • IL5: Stimulates IgA (and esosinophils)
  11. What are the essential amino acids?
    • TIM HALL has PVT
    • Tryp, Isoleu, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys, Phe, Val, Thre
  12. Killed virus vaccines
    • RIP - hep A
    • Rabies
    • Influenza
    • Polio (Salk)
    • Hep A
  13. Live viral vaccines
    • LIVE! See small yellow chickens get vaccinated with MMR by Sabin!!
    • Small pox
    • Yellow fever
    • Varicella zoster
    • Measles
    • Mumps
    • Rubella
    • Polio (Sabin)
    • and
    • Rotavirus
    • Adenovirus
  14. X-linked immunideficiencies
    • No immune system, What A BitCH
    • Wiskott-Aldrich: defect in cytoskeleton glycoprotein > depressed IgM
    • Bruton's agammaglobinulinemia: boys after 6mo old, no B-cells
    • Chronic Granulomatous Dz: defect in NADPH oxidase
    • HyperIgM syndrome: deficiency in CD40L > hi IgM, no other isotypes
  15. WAiter
    • WA: Wisckott-Aldrich
    • I: immunodeficiency
    • T: thrombocytopenia
    • E: eczema
    • R: recurrent pyogenic infections
  16. Tetracycline use
    • VACUM THe BedRoom
    • Vibrio
    • Acne
    • Chlamydia
    • Ureaplasma
    • Mycoplasma
    • Tularemia
    • H. pylori
    • Brucella/Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Rickettsia
  17. Which abx work at 30S vs 50S?
    • Buy AT 30: aminoglycosides, tertracyclines
    • CELL at 50: clindamycin/chloramphenicol, erythro (and other macrolides), lingomycin, linezolid
  18. Drugs with photosensitivity rxns
    • No sun on SATurday
    • Sulfonamides
    • Amiodarone
    • Tetracyclines
  19. What bugs are targeted by macrolides?
    • PUS
    • P: (atypical) pneumonia bugs - mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella
    • U: URI bugs - strep. pneumo and strep. pyogenes
    • S: STI - chlamydia and gonorrhea
  20. Uses of metronidazole
    • GET GAP on the Metro
    • Giardia
    • Entameboa
    • Trichomonas
    • Gardinella vaginalis
    • Anearobes
    • H. Pylori
  21. Sx of pellagra
    • Three D's
    • Dementia
    • Diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
  22. Three or more of these sx are need to make a diagnosis of a manic or hypomanic (not debilitating) episode
    • DIG FAST!
    • Distractability
    • Irresponsibility
    • Grandiosity

    • Flight of ideas
    • Agitation (psychomotor)
    • Sleep need decreased
    • Talkative
  23. HACEK organisms
    • Subacute endocarditis
    • G (-), normal flora of oropharynx, anaerobic.
    • Tx with ampillicin
  24. Which bacteria grow pink on MacConkey's agar (lactose fermentor)
    • Lactose is key test with MacConKEE'S agar.
    • Citrobacter
    • Klebsiella
    • E. coli
    • Enterobacter
    • Serratia
  25. VDRL false positives
    • Viruses (mono and hep)
    • Drugs
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Lupus and leprosy
  26. What does histoplasma look like?
    Histo Hides in macrophages
  27. What does Blastomyces look like?
    Broad-Based-Buds!
  28. What does coccidioidomycosis look like?
    Coccidio crowds (spherule filled with endospores)
  29. What does paracoccidioidmycosis look like?
    Where can you get it?
    Paracoccioidio sails with captain's wheel to Latin America.
  30. Which worms are ingested, which go through skin?
    • You'll get sick if you EAT these.
    • Enterobius
    • Ascaris
    • Trichinella

    • These get into your feet through the SANd
    • Strongyloides
    • Ancylostoma
    • Necator
  31. Which viruses are nonenveloped?
    • Naked CPR and PAPP smear.
    • Calcivirus, Picona, Reo, Parvo, Adeno, Papilloma, Polyoma
  32. DNA viruses
    • DNA viruses are HHAPPPy!
    • Hepadena, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma
  33. Segmented DNA viruses
    • Important because they can undergo assortment.
    • Segmented DNA is not BOARing.
    • Bunyaviruses, Orthomyoxvirues (influenza), Arenaviruses, Reoviruses (rota)
  34. TORCH'S infections
    • Toxo
    • Other: Liseria
    • Rubella
    • CMV
    • HIV/HSV
    • Syphilis
  35. Kallman syndrome sx
    • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: genetic disorder of hypothal
    • Anosia
    • Blindness to
    • Color
    • Delayed puberty
  36. Causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
    • ABC's D
    • Chronic Alcohol
    • Wet Beri-beri
    • Cocaine, Chaga's, Coxsackie
    • Doxorubicin
  37. Rhematic heart dz sx
    • FEVERSS
    • Fever
    • Erythema marginatum
    • Valvular damage
    • ESR increased
    • Red-hot joints
    • Subcutaneous nodules (Aschoff bodies = granulomas)
    • St. Vitus dance
  38. Causes of increased anion gap acidosis
    • MUDPILES
    • Methanol
    • Uremia
    • Diabetes
    • Paraldehyde or Phenformin
    • Iron
    • Lactic acid
    • Ehtylene glycol (yummy!)
    • Salicylates
  39. Sx of 22q11 deletion
    • CATCH-22
    • Symptoms of 22q11 deletion syndromes:
    • C - Cleft palate
    • A - Abnormal facies
    • T - Thymic aplasia --> T cell deficiency
    • C - Cardiac defects
    • H - Hypocalcemia - 2'ary to parathyroid aplasia
  40. Epidermins layers (surface to base)
    • Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis
    • Stratum: Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basalis
  41. Muscles innervated by radial nerve
    • BEST
    • Brachioradialis
    • Extensor of wrist and fingers
    • Supinator
    • Triceps
  42. Tissues that have insulin-independent glucose uptake
    • BRICK L
    • Brain, RBCs, Intestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver.
  43. Effects of Cortisol
    • Cortisol is BBIG
    • Maintains Blood pressure
    • Decreases Bone formation
    • Decrease Immune function
    • Increase Gluconeogenesis (and other anabolic pathways)
  44. Function of Thyroid hormone (T3)
    • 4 B's
    • Brain maturation
    • Bone growth
    • Beta-adrenergic effects
    • BMR increased
  45. Rule of 10s
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • 10% malignant
    • 10% bilateral
    • 10% extra-adrenal
    • 10% calcify
    • 10% kids
    • 10% familial
  46. Sx of hyperCa
    • Stones, bones and groans.
    • Renal stones, increased bone formation, weakness, constipation
  47. Rule of 1/3's
    • Carcinoid syndrome
    • 1/3 metastasize
    • 1/3 present with 2nd malignancy
    • 1/3 multiple
    • Most commmon tumor of appendix.
  48. MEN
    • MEN 1, Wermer's: PPP
    • Parathyroid, pituitary, pancreas
    • MEN 2a, Sipple's: PPM
    • Parathyroid, pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid
    • MEN 2b: PMG
    • Pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid, ganglioneuromas
  49. Femoral triangle lateral to medial
    • NAVEL
    • Nerve, artery, vein, (empty), lymphatic
  50. The five 2's
    • Meckel's diverticulum
    • 2 in long
    • 2 feet from ileocecal valve
    • 2% of population
    • Presents first 2 years of life
    • 2 types of epithelia
  51. Causes of acute pancreatitis
    • GET SMASHED
    • Gallstones, EtOH, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune dz, Scorpion sting, HyperCa/Hyperlipidemia, ERCP, Drugs (sulfa)
  52. Rotator cuff muscles
    • SItS
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres minor
    • Subscapularis
  53. Reiter's syndrome
    • Can't pee, can't see, can't climb a tree
    • Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
  54. Sarcoidosis
    • GRAIN
    • Gammaglobulinemia
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • ACE increase
    • Interstitial fibriosis
    • Noncaseating granulomas
  55. COWS
    • Cold water, quick phase to Opposite side
    • Warm water, quick phase to Same side
  56. Drugs with SE of gynecomastia
    • Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers.
    • Spironolactone, Digitalis, Cimetidine, Alcohol, Ketoconazole.
  57. Bacteriostatics
    • We're ECSTaTiC about bacteriostatics!
    • Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol
  58. Bacteriocidal
    • Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder
    • Vancomycin, Fluoroquinolones, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Metronidazole
  59. Drugs that can cause gyneocomastia
    • Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers
    • Spironolactone
    • Digitalis
    • Cimetidine
    • Alcohol
    • Ketoconazole

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