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- Pardon PaPa As He Has Pox
- Parvovirus - ssDNA, B19
- Papilloma -
- Hepadnavirus - hep B
- Herpes - HSV, CMV, EBV, VZV
- Poxvirus - variola, vaccinia, mulluscum contagiosum
Smallest to largest, first four are naked.
- PEECo RnA viruses
- Hep A
Positive sense RNA viruses
- Call Pico and Flo To Come Right away!
- Calcivirus - norwalk
- Hepevirus - hep E
- Picornavirus - PEECo RnA virus
- Flavivirus - yellow fever, dengue, west nile
- Togavirus - rubella
- Coronavirus - SARS
- Retrovirus - HIV, HTLV
Smallest to largest, first three are naked
Negative sense RNA viruses
- Pain Results From Our Bunions Always! And pain is a negative thing!
- Paramyxovirus - mumps, measles, RSV, parainflu
- Rhabovirus - rabies, VSV
- Filovirus - ebola
- Orthomyxovirus - influ
- Bunyavirus - hantavirus
- Arenavirus -
Needs Cysteine to grow
- The four sisters, "ELLA", worship in the Cysteine chapel.
Bugs with capsules
- Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules
- Strep. pneumo
- Kleb pneumo
- H. influ
- P. aeruginosa
- Neiseria meningitidis
- Crytococcus neoformans
Bugs with urease
- These bugs will PUNCH your kidneys
- Cryptococcus neoformans
Catalase (+) bugs
- Give catalase bugs some SPACE!
- P. aeruginosa
Side effects of atropine!
- HOT as a hare
- BLIND as a bat
- DRY as a bone
- RED as a beet
- MAD as a hatter
Effects of cytokines
- Hot T-bone stEAk
- IL1: fever
- IL2: stimulates Tcells
- IL3: stimulates bone marrow
- IL4: Stimulates IgE (and IgG)
- IL5: Stimulates IgA (and esosinophils)
What are the essential amino acids?
- TIM HALL has PVT
- Tryp, Isoleu, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys, Phe, Val, Thre
Killed virus vaccines
- RIP - hep A
- Polio (Salk)
- Hep A
Live viral vaccines
- LIVE! See small yellow chickens get vaccinated with MMR by Sabin!!
- Small pox
- Yellow fever
- Varicella zoster
- Polio (Sabin)
- No immune system, What A BitCH
- Wiskott-Aldrich: defect in cytoskeleton glycoprotein > depressed IgM
- Bruton's agammaglobinulinemia: boys after 6mo old, no B-cells
- Chronic Granulomatous Dz: defect in NADPH oxidase
- HyperIgM syndrome: deficiency in CD40L > hi IgM, no other isotypes
- WA: Wisckott-Aldrich
- I: immunodeficiency
- T: thrombocytopenia
- E: eczema
- R: recurrent pyogenic infections
- VACUM THe BedRoom
- H. pylori
- Brucella/Borrelia burgdorferi
Which abx work at 30S vs 50S?
- Buy AT 30: aminoglycosides, tertracyclines
- CELL at 50: clindamycin/chloramphenicol, erythro (and other macrolides), lingomycin, linezolid
Drugs with photosensitivity rxns
- No sun on SATurday
What bugs are targeted by macrolides?
- P: (atypical) pneumonia bugs - mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella
- U: URI bugs - strep. pneumo and strep. pyogenes
- S: STI - chlamydia and gonorrhea
Uses of metronidazole
- GET GAP on the Metro
- Gardinella vaginalis
- H. Pylori
Sx of pellagra
- Three D's
Three or more of these sx are need to make a diagnosis of a manic or hypomanic (not debilitating) episode
- DIG FAST!
- Flight of ideas
- Agitation (psychomotor)
- Sleep need decreased
- Subacute endocarditis
- G (-), normal flora of oropharynx, anaerobic.
- Tx with ampillicin
Which bacteria grow pink on MacConkey's agar (lactose fermentor)
- Lactose is key test with MacConKEE'S agar.
- E. coli
VDRL false positives
- Viruses (mono and hep)
- Rheumatic fever
- Lupus and leprosy
What does histoplasma look like?
Histo Hides in macrophages
What does Blastomyces look like?
What does coccidioidomycosis look like?
Coccidio crowds (spherule filled with endospores)
What does paracoccidioidmycosis look like?
Where can you get it?
Paracoccioidio sails with captain's wheel to Latin America.
Which worms are ingested, which go through skin?
- You'll get sick if you EAT these.
- These get into your feet through the SANd
Which viruses are nonenveloped?
- Naked CPR and PAPP smear.
- Calcivirus, Picona, Reo, Parvo, Adeno, Papilloma, Polyoma
- DNA viruses are HHAPPPy!
- Hepadena, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma
Segmented DNA viruses
- Important because they can undergo assortment.
- Segmented DNA is not BOARing.
- Bunyaviruses, Orthomyoxvirues (influenza), Arenaviruses, Reoviruses (rota)
- Other: Liseria
Kallman syndrome sx
- Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: genetic disorder of hypothal
- Blindness to
- Delayed puberty
Causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
- ABC's D
- Chronic Alcohol
- Wet Beri-beri
- Cocaine, Chaga's, Coxsackie
Rhematic heart dz sx
- Erythema marginatum
- Valvular damage
- ESR increased
- Red-hot joints
- Subcutaneous nodules (Aschoff bodies = granulomas)
- St. Vitus dance
Causes of increased anion gap acidosis
- Paraldehyde or Phenformin
- Lactic acid
- Ehtylene glycol (yummy!)
Sx of 22q11 deletion
- Symptoms of 22q11 deletion syndromes:
- C - Cleft palate
- A - Abnormal facies
- T - Thymic aplasia --> T cell deficiency
- C - Cardiac defects
- H - Hypocalcemia - 2'ary to parathyroid aplasia
Epidermins layers (surface to base)
- Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis
- Stratum: Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basalis
Muscles innervated by radial nerve
- Extensor of wrist and fingers
Tissues that have insulin-independent glucose uptake
- BRICK L
- Brain, RBCs, Intestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver.
Effects of Cortisol
- Cortisol is BBIGMaintains Blood pressureDecreases Bone formationDecrease Immune function
- Increase Gluconeogenesis (and other anabolic pathways)
Function of Thyroid hormone (T3)
- 4 B's
- Brain maturation
- Bone growth
- Beta-adrenergic effects
- BMR increased
Rule of 10s
- 10% malignant
- 10% bilateral
- 10% extra-adrenal
- 10% calcify
- 10% kids
- 10% familial
Sx of hyperCa
- Stones, bones and groans.
- Renal stones, increased bone formation, weakness, constipation
Rule of 1/3's
- Carcinoid syndrome
- 1/3 metastasize
- 1/3 present with 2nd malignancy
- 1/3 multiple
- Most commmon tumor of appendix.
- MEN 1, Wermer's: PPP
- Parathyroid, pituitary, pancreas
- MEN 2a, Sipple's: PPM
- Parathyroid, pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid
- MEN 2b: PMG
- Pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid, ganglioneuromas
Femoral triangle lateral to medial
- Nerve, artery, vein, (empty), lymphatic
The five 2's
- Meckel's diverticulum
- 2 in long
- 2 feet from ileocecal valve
- 2% of population
- Presents first 2 years of life
- 2 types of epithelia
Causes of acute pancreatitis
- GET SMASHED
- Gallstones, EtOH, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune dz, Scorpion sting, HyperCa/Hyperlipidemia, ERCP, Drugs (sulfa)
Rotator cuff muscles
- Teres minor
- Can't pee, can't see, can't climb a treeUrethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- ACE increase
- Interstitial fibriosis
- Noncaseating granulomas
- Cold water, quick phase to Opposite side
- Warm water, quick phase to Same side
Drugs with SE of gynecomastia
- Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers.
- Spironolactone, Digitalis, Cimetidine, Alcohol, Ketoconazole.
- We're ECSTaTiC about bacteriostatics!
- Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol
- Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder
- Vancomycin, Fluoroquinolones, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Metronidazole
Drugs that can cause gyneocomastia
- Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers