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large organizations responsible for education national defence or transportation
narrow responsibilities for a specific policy issue
not under the contril of the president or a department
independent regulatory commission
focused policy mission
run by a body of officials
are fun like private corporations
Fed handle specific functions
- postal system
- congress believes they wouldnt be handled effectivley by private buisness due to the scope and profitablity
title of secretary
presidents cabniet consist of the heads of the executive deoartment
head of the department of justice
- grown to include 15 departments as
- well as administrators of three agencies within the executive office of the
Bureaucracy are created and evolve as ....
- a mean to undertake the purposes and
- responsibilities of organizations.
competent personnel, job responsibilities under central authority, and detailed
- centralized administration, common set of rules,
- benefits, and services
people develop expertise
congress can authorize a specific budget
hierarchy enables the leaders in each agency to
direct subordinate to work.
- A century ago government employees were hired and fired on the basis of their
- support for particular political parties and candidates for elective office
parties rewarded their supports by
- them government jobs
spoils system gave who jobs....
- unqualified people government jobs despite lacking knowledge and interest to
- carry out their tast properly
spent too much time doing ...
- that would help keep their party in power and themselves in their jobs.
creating the first federal civil service system
- three entites sharing joint interests concerning specific policy goals
- Interest groups
Issue networks/ policy communities
- involve large numbers of interested parties each with substantial expertise in the
- policy area.
during nations first century
- federal government was involved in only a limited range of policy areas.
- They focused on policy matters related to
- specific powers granted by the constitution to congress and the president
the four departments
- department of state,
nations most important indestry in the 19 century
urbanization, and immigration
- resulted in people moving to the cities to
- work in factories and service occupations.
20th century, congress created the .....
- of commerce and the department of labor to address these emerging issues.
- govermnet had to take an active role in the economy in order to overcome the
- depression so he developed the New Deal.
- income for senior citizens and dependents for deceased workers.