According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) and advocated mass migration of African Americans
"back to Africa". Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
men and women who were legally freed from slavery after the 13th Amendment was passed in 1865. Their rights (voting and civil) were slowly stripped by the Black Codes and segregation that took hold in the South after Reconstruction ended.
1865. Amendement abolishing and continually prohibiting slavery. With limited exception, such as those guilty of comitting a crime, it also prevents indentured servitude.
1870, stated that men cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Reconstruction Act of 1867
1867- divided Confederate states into 5 military districts, troops + commander stationed in each district. All states had to create constitutions that gave freedmen voting rights and ratified the 14th Amendment
Depression of 1873
Early in Grant's second term, the country was hit by an economic depression known as the Panic or Depression of 1873. It was caused by by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke's bank and Northern Pacific Rail Co.
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South, thus ENDING RECONSTRUCTION.
The Harlem Renaissance
the flourishing of African-American literature and art in the 1920's, mostly in urban centers across America. Prominent figures: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, W.E.B. DuBois, Zora Neale Hurston, Duke Ellington, Alain Locke
Leader of the "New Negro" movement and editor of The New Negro�an anthology of writings by African Americans.
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent Civil Rights leader who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
The former president of SNCC and was involved with the 1964 Freedom Summer. He protested for Black Power and pride meaning African Americans should focus on gaining control of their communities. While he was leader of SNCC, the group became very radical and opposed segregation.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A member of the Nation of Islam
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
A. Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for African Americans to march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Franklin D. Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896- Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Brown v Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Dred Scott v Sanford
1857-The Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Black Panther Party Platform
1.We want power to determine the destiny of our Black community.
2.We want full employment for our people.
3.We want an end to the robbery by the White man of our Black community.
4.We want decent housing fit for the shelter of human beings.
5.We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of American society.
6.We want all Black men to be exempt from military service.
7.We want an immediate end to police brutality.
8.Freedom for all black men held in prisons and jails.
9.We want all Black people when brought to trial, to be tried by a jury of their peers.
10.We want land grant housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace.
Along with Bobby Seale established the Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization founded after WWII by James Farmer. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was a student based civil rights organization. Their actions, such as sit-ins, helped pass civil right laws.
August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Sparked riots in other cities like Detroit and Chicago.