2nd semester review

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2nd semester review
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2012-05-09 20:05:17
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  1. George Kennan
    He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
  2. Joe McCarthy
    Winsconsin Senator that created a national witch hunt for socialist and communists inside the United States after WWII
  3. Rosenbergs
    Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union
  4. Douglas MacAurthur
    US general in WWII and the Korean War, was called the living legend. Pres. Hoover ordered him to remove the bonus army from Anacostia Flats with guns and tear gas. One child ended up dying. He called the bonus army "communist agitators"
  5. Ho Chi Minh
    1950s and 60s
  6. Mao Zedong
    This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
  7. Chiang Kai-shek
    General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
  8. President Diem
    Ardent nationalist who ruled South Vietnam. Anti-communist. Lacked popular appeal. Devout Roman Catholic while rest of country was mainly Buddhist. Had anti-Buddhist legislation.
  9. W.E.B. Dubois
    He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
  10. Booker T. Washington
    Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
  11. Marcus Garvey
    Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
  12. Gifford Pinchot
    head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
  13. Rachael Carson
    Environmentalist-wrote a book called Silent Spring
  14. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
  15. Susan B. Anthony
    social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
  16. Lucy Stone
    formed American Women's suffrage movement, School teacher, daughter of a farmer, became abolitionist, lecturer for Anti-Slavery Society, good at giving speeches, disagreed with Susan Antony, did not want to seperate the women's rights movement from the aboltionist/civil rights movement.
  17. Elizabeth Blackwell
    First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
  18. Margaret Sanger
    United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood
  19. Condolleezza Rice
    First African-American woman secretary of state with George W. Bush
  20. Ruth Bader-Ginsburg
    second female Supreme Court justice, along with Sandra Day O'Connor (clinton)
  21. Betty Friedan
    1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
  22. Jane Addams
    1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. Hull House
  23. Martin Luther King Jr.
    U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
  24. Malcom X
    spread ideas of black nationalism. disagreed w/ both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement. minister of the nation of isam. rejected his original name because it was his family's slave name. against MLKJR
  25. Stokely Carmichael
    a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
  26. Lee Harvey Oswald
    On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
  27. Jack Ruby
    killed Lee Harvey Oswald
  28. Teapot Dome
    a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
  29. Rugged Individualism
    The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
  30. Trickle Down
    terms of political rhetoric that refer to the policy of providing tax cuts or other benefits to businesses and rich individuals, in the belief that this will indirectly benefit the broad population. Today "trickle-down economics" is most closely identified with the economic policies known as Reaganomics or supply-side economics.
  31. Laissez-Faire
    the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
  32. Spanish-American War
    In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
  33. Talented Tenth
    according to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks
  34. Hull House
    Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
  35. Old Immigration
    This was when the US did have the quota system and certain nationalities, religions, and races were excluded from immigrating to the US. (1800s)
  36. New Immigration
    The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.
  37. Return To Normalcy
    After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolatoinism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. It was the calm before the bigger storm hit: World War II
  38. Federal Trade Commission
    an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
  39. Interstate Commerce Commission
    a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
  40. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
  41. Brook Farm
    A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
  42. Oneida Community
    A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
  43. Populists
    formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them) 8hr work day
  44. Progressives
    Political movement started in the early 20th century with its roots in the reforms of the 1840s, with the battle cry "Strengthen the State" and waged war on corrupt institutions and social injustices.
  45. Seneca Falls Convention
    Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
  46. 19th Ammendment
    Gave women the right to vote
  47. Title IX
    No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
  48. Muckrakers
    This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
  49. New Deal
    FDR's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939)
  50. Lusitania
    American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats
  51. Totalitarianism
    is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. These states always have to be at war with something
  52. Appeasement
    Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
  53. Open Door Policy
    A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
  54. Manifest Destiny
    This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
  55. Isolation
    a country's withdrawal from internal politics (kind of obvs)
  56. Neutrality
    nonparticipation in a dispute or war (also kind of obvs)
  57. Manhattan Project
    code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
  58. Wilson's 14 Points
    Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
  59. League of Nations
    an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
  60. Good Neighbor Policy
    FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
  61. Dollar Diplomacy
    Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
  62. Sphere of Influence
    A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
  63. Roosevelt Corollary
    Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
  64. United Nations
    an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
  65. Containment
    American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
  66. Truman Doctrine
    President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
  67. Marshall Plan
    a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
  68. Brinkmanship
    the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
  69. Korean War
    The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
  70. Atlantic Charter
    1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
  71. Lend-Lease Act
    allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
  72. Wartime Conferences
    1941- Atlantic Charter (self-determination)
  73. Brown v. Board of Education
    1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
  74. Civil Rights Movement
    a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
  75. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
  76. Tet Offensive
    1968
  77. My Lai Massacre
    1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
  78. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture, Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
  79. Detente
    the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
  80. Watergate
    1972
  81. Big Stick Diplomacy
    Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.

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