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what are spermatophytes?
seed bearing plants classified as gymnosperms or angiosperms.
Examples of Protosome coelomates
Annelida, Mollusca, and arthropoda
- - most primitive protozoans
- - 1 or more flagella
- -no cell wall
- - most are parasites
- i.e. trypansomes- flagellates that cause African leeping sickness
- Trichoymph- genus capable of digesting cellulose
-Division with Wubacteria
-Photosynthetic pigments but no chloroplasts
-believed to be descended from 1st photosynthetic organism.
- -brown algae
- -mostly multicellular
- -Alternation of generations
similar to cnidarians but have 8 rows of ciliary plater for locomotion
Chordata and its subphyla
- -Urochordata(tunicates)- inhabit benthic habitat
- -(ephalochordata i.e.-(lancelet)
- -vertebrata- high degree of cephalization
- 3 basic characteristics of Chordata:
- 1) Notochord
- 2) Nerve cord
- 3) Pharygeal gill slits
(club mosses) or division of Tracheophyta
-gametophyte generation is non photosynthetic
-rely on symbiotic fungi for nourishment
- Have 2 layers of cells (diploblastic), radial symmetry and a gastrovascular cavity (coelenteron) which serves as a digestive cavity foood passes back out of the mouth.
- Consist fo two phyla:
- 1) Cnidaria (coelenterates)
- 2) ctenophora (combjellies)
info and Phyla
- Protozoans are not moss
- -same free-living, others parasites
- 5 Major Phyla:
- 1) Mastigophora
- 3) Sporozoa
- 4) Ciliata
- 5) Opalinida
- - Generally use asexual reproduction
- MIS (malleus, incus, stapes)
- -tympanic membrane ( eardrum)
- -ossicles ( malleus Incus, Stapes)
- amplify the stimulus and transmit it through the oval window and to fluid-filled inner ear.
What do they effect?
- steroid hormones for second degree sex characteristics and sex drive.
- -resonsible for thickening of the endometrium
- -secreed ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
- 1st phase:
- Cessation of mestrual flow
- FSH promotes development of the follicle
- Follicle begins secreting estrogen
A Releaser is?
For animals it is a signal ( i.e. odor) that evokes an unlearned response
What is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It contains no enzymes Emulsifies fats ( exposies more surface area to pancreatic lypase) and in the absence of which fats cannot be digested?
what does it effect?
- steroid hormone which stimulates the development and maintenance of endometrial walls.
- Secreted by- corpus luteum during luteal phase.
of anterior Pituitary?
stimulat other endocrine glands to release hormones. regulated by hypothalamus-ACTH-TSH-LH-FSH
- One of two hormone types
- Range from short peptides (ADH) to complex polypeptides (insulin)
- Act as 1st messengers, binding to cell surface receptors, triggering enzymatic rxns in cell
- Rxns may include conversion of ATP to cAMP to catalyzed by adenlate cyclase
What inhibits spindle formation?
- diploid oogonium in follicle enlarges to become a primary oocyte.
- -following 1st meotic devision ( arrested in prophase 1 until fertilization) a large second degree oocyte and polar body (both haploid) are formed
- - 2nd meiotic division- large cell produced that develop into egg. Polar body produced disintegrates.
Cell division check points
- G1- occurs at end of G1. Cell will enter G0 if determined that cell should not divide
- G2- at end of G2 cell evaluates the accuracy of DNA replication and signals whether to begin mitosis
- M-checkpoint- during metaphase, ensures that microtubules are attached to kinetochores at the metaphase plate.
The spores of an unknown plant has 18 chromosomes, what is the diploid number?
results in cells whose future paths are determined at an early stage.
What is Morula?
It is a solid ball of embryonic cells
what is redustion devision in cells?
And why does it happen?
- it happens because during anaphase of meiosis I no splitting of centromeres occurs
- -it reduces the diploid (2n) condition to he haploid (1n) following meiosis I.
Bacteriophage does not lyse host cell but becomes integrated into bacteria genome in a harmless form (prophage)
- replication of nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis. Produces cell smaller in size
- Occurs in- Hydra, Yeast
Portion of egg where least yolk is concentrated opposite vegetal pole
what is the substance that provides the stiffness in walls of Tracheophyte cells
What RNA polymerase attach to in RNA synthesis?
promoter region of the DNA
What is the function of th E.R?
transport of materials throughout cell particularly those to be secreted