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Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence died soon after Alex Hamilton was shot and killed by Burr in a duel and disappeared completely after the War of 1812 because they were against fighting the war.
Against ratifying the constitution, They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Free Soil Party
formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848
The temporary 1864 coalition of republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election
American Party (AKA the Know Nothing Party)
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war, Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
Out of the Farmer's Alliance emerged a new political party in the 1890's. Political program: nationalize the railroads, telephone and telegraph, instituting a graduated income tax, create a federal "sub-treasury" (federal loans to farmers to store grain until prices went up), free and unlimited coinage of silver, 8 hour work day.
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket., The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.
Political parties formed in the unity of an international organization with a set beliefs inspired by the writings of Karl Marx. They desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize American industries
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