MCAT O-Chem 1.1

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Author:
Maki6tu
ID:
153221
Filename:
MCAT O-Chem 1.1
Updated:
2013-05-27 16:53:56
Tags:
Chem
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Description:
Chem
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  1. Bond lengths from shortest to longest
    Triple, double, single
  2. Bond strengths from weakest to strongest
    C-C, C=C, C=C
  3. Bond stability from least stable to most
    Triple, double, single.
  4. Calculating formal charge
    Formal charge = valence – assigned
  5. Energy changes in forming and breaking bonds
    Energy is always released when a bond is formed, and required when a bond is broken.
  6. Heat of combustion trend
    The less stable the bond, the greater will be the heat of combustion. The more stable the bond, the lower the heat of combustion.
  7. Hückel's Rule
    To determine aromaticity,

    4n + 2 pi
  8. sp geometry
    Linear
  9. sp2 geometry
    Trigonal planar or bent
  10. sp3 geometry
    Tetrahedral or trigonal pyramidal
  11. sp3d geometry
    Trigonal bipyramidal
  12. sp3d2 geometry
    Octahedral or square pyramidal
  13. Conformational isomers
    Same exact compound arranged in different spatial orientations.
  14. Structural isomers
    Same molecular formula, different bond to bond connectivity.
  15. Stereoisomers
    Same formula, same bond to bond connectivity, different in the 3-D arrangement.

    • Enantiomers: non-identical, mirror images.
    • Diasteromers: non-identical, and NOT mirror images.

    • (+ or d) - rotates light clockwise, dextrorotatory
    • (– or l) - rotates light counterclockwise, levorotatory
  16. Meso compounds
    Two or more chiral centers that contain a plane of symmetry.
  17. sp bond angle
    180˚
  18. sp2 bond angle
    120˚
  19. sp3 bond angle
    109.5˚
  20. sp3d bond angle
    90˚/120˚ or 180˚
  21. sp3d2 bond angle
    90˚

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