Pregnancy and Birth

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Pregnancy and Birth
2012-05-10 23:46:53

Chapter 11
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  1. Percentage of Americans that do not want children
  2. Amount of sperm per ejaculate
    300-400 million
  3. Amount of sperm that reaches ovum
    about 1,000
  4. Fertility begins to decline at ages...
    • 27 for women
    • 35 for men
  5. Each gender # at conception
    150 M/100 F
  6. Each gender # at implantation
    120 M/100 F
  7. Each gender # at birth
    105 M/ 100 F
  8. zygote
    fertilized ovum
  9. amniocentesis
    a procedure for drawing off and examining fetal cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders in the fetus
  10. down syndrome
    chromosomal abnormality that leads to mental retardation, caused by an extra chromosome in the 21st pair
  11. spontaneous abortion
    miscarriage; sudden, involuntary expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is capable of independent life
  12. zona pellucida
    a gelatinous layer that surrounds an ovum
  13. hyaluronidase
    enzyme that briefly thins the zona pellucida, enabling one sperm to penetrate
  14. motility
    measure of the viability of sperm cells
  15. autoimmune response
    production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring substances that are (incorrectly) recognized as being foreign or harmful
  16. artificial insemination
    introduction of sperom in the reproductive tract through means other than sexual intercourse
  17. endometriosis
    • abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue is sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation
    • abdominal pain; may cause infertility
  18. laparoscopy
    medical procedure in which a long, narrow tube is inserted through incision in navek, allowing inspection of organs in the pelvic cavity
  19. Rubin test
    test where carbon dioxide is blown through cervix and its progress through reproductive tract is tracked to determine whether or not the fallopian tubes are blocked
  20. hysterosalpingogram
    test where dye is injected to see if fallopian tubes are blocked
  21. in vitro
    mature ova surgically removed from ovary and placed in lab dish with sperm
  22. gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
    a sperm and oca are inserted into tube to encourage conception
  23. zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
    ovum is fertilized in lab and placed into tube
  24. donor IVF
    ovum taken from woman, fertilized, and injected into another woman
  25. embryonic transfer
    woman is artifically inseminated by male partner of intended mother, and then the embryo is removed and injected into intended mother
  26. intracytoplasmic sperm injection
    single sperm injected directly into ovum
  27. human chorionic gonadotropin
    hormone produced by women shortly after conception, which stimulates the corpus luteum to continue to produce progesterone. Presence of HSG indicates that she's pregnant
  28. germinal stage
    period of prenatal development before implantation in the uterus
  29. blastocyst
    stage within germinal stage; embryo is a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid
  30. embryonic disk
    platelike inner part of the blastocyst, which differentiates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo
  31. trophoblast
    outer part of blastocyst, from which amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord develop
  32. embryonic stage
    stage of prenatal development that alsts from implantation through the eighth week and is characterized by the differentiation of the major organ systems
  33. cephalocaudal
    from the head downward
  34. ectoderm
    outermost cell layer of newly formed embryo, from which skin and nervous system develop
  35. neural tube
    a hollow area in the blastocyst from which the nervous system will develop
  36. endoderm
    inner layer of new embryo, from which lungs and digestive system develop
  37. mesoderm
    central layer of the embryo, from which bones and muscles develop
  38. placenta
    relay station between mother and fetus, allowing the exchange of nutrients and wastes
  39. cephalic presentation
    emergence of the baby head first from the womb
  40. breech presentation
    emergence of the baby bottom or feet first from the womb
  41. teratogens
    environmental influences or agents that can damage an embryo or fetus
  42. rubella
    viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo
  43. syphilis
    bacterial STD
  44. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
    condition caused by HIV that destroys white blood cells in the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to various "opportunistic" diseases
  45. toxemia
    life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure
  46. ectopic pregnancy
    pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted someplace other than the uterus
  47. Rh incompatibility
    condition in which antibodies produced by a pregnant woman are transmitted to the fetus and may cause brain damage or death
  48. DES
    estrogen that was once given to women at risk for miscarriage to help maintain pregnancy
  49. FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome)
    cluster of symptoms caused by maternal drinking, in which the child shows developmental lags and characteristic facial features such as an underdeveloped upper jaw
  50. Braxton-Hicks contractions
    so called false labor contractions that are relatively painless
  51. prostaglandins
    uterine hormones that stimulate uterine contractions
  52. oxytocin
    pituitary hormone that stimulate uterine contractions
  53. efface
    to become thin
  54. dilate
    to open or widen
  55. transition
    process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully-dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal
  56. episiotomy
    surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing random tearing during childbirth
  57. perinuem
    area between the vulva and the anus
  58. lamaze method
    childbirth method in which women learn about birth, to relax and breathe in patterns that conserve energy and lessen pain and have a coach
  59. anoxia
    oxygen deprivation
  60. surfactant
    substances that prevent the walls of the airways from sticking together
  61. prolactin
    a pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk
  62. lochia
    reddish vaginal discharge that may persist for a month after delivery