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  1. define pasteurization
    present bacteria
  2. define hybridization
    crossing two types
  3. define GMO
    genetically modified organism eg, plants, animals, humans
  4. what was the first thing to be modified?
  5. examples of gene modified bacteria
    • medicines: proteins like insulin and growth hormones
    • detergents: gene modiefied proteins breaking down dirt at a higher temperature, normal proteins
  6. define deoxyribose
    5carbon sugar in DNA
  7. what is the nitrogeous bases in DNA?
    Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
  8. Define nucleotide
    phosphate + 5-carbon sugar+ nitrogeous base
  9. define helix
  10. define mRNA
    messanger from DNA to ribosomes, a copy of genes
  11. define transcription
    formation of mRNA in the nucleus
  12. define ribosome
    organelle, often on ER wher the protein is put together
  13. define anticodon
    triplet of nitrogenous bases on the tRNA, fits the codon
  14. tRNA
    transporter of amino acids to the ribosomes
  15. define translation
    from base sequence on the mRNA to amino acid sequence
  16. define sex chromosomes
    x and Y chromosome
  17. define autosomes
    all chromosomes but the sex chromosomes
  18. define sex linked traits
    gene placed on a sex chromosome
  19. define a linkage group
    genes on the same chromosome
  20. define crossing over
    exchanging DNA between homologous chromosomes
  21. define multiple gene inheritance
    more than one gene responsible for a trait
  22. endosymbiosis
    evolution eukaryotic cells
  23. define mutations
    a mistake in replication the genetic information
  24. define migration- gene flow
    is the tranfer of genes from one population to another
  25. define genetic drift
    a random change is the fequency of genes
  26. define natural selection
    will result due to adaption
  27. what are the condition for a natural slection to occur
    • -variation
    • -defensive survival and reproduction traits
    • -genes and traits are inherited
    • -overpopulation
    • -change in evironment
  28. why can natural selection not fashion perfect organisms
    • -there is no turning back
    • -adaptions are often compromises
    • -not all evolution is adaptive
    • -selection can only edit existing variations
  29. define anatomy
    building of the body inside and outside
  30. are lookalikes always closely related
    • 1. closely related organisms are not always similar in appearance-small changes in genes can lead to major changes in appearance(morphological)
    • 2. organísms that appear similar are not always closely related
  31. define convergent evolution
    process of by which distantly related organisms develop similar characteristics
  32. define cladistic
    • -also called phelogenetic systematics or phelogenetic taxonomy
    • Based on three prionciples
    • 1. groups of organism are descendant of common ancestors
    • 2. at each mode (divergence of population) there are two branching lines of descendants
    • 3. evolution results in modification of characteristics over time
  33. define food webs
    climax systems, biodiverse
  34. food chains
  35. what are the three components of biodiversity?
    • 1. diversity of genes
    • 2. the diversity of numbers specied
    • 3. variety of ecosystems
  36. define ecosystem
    • a self contained community of microorganisms, animals and plants that interact with each other in a physical environment
    • within the ecosystem there can be many habitats
  37. define habitat
    this is the physical and chemical description of where creatures lives
  38. what can habitats describe
    • 1. the name of the place
    • 2. the dominant vegetation
    • 3. the type of place
  39. define intrinsic
    something that has a value in and of itself
  40. define utilitirian value
    the value something has as a mean to anothers end
  41. list 6 things we can get from biodiversity
    • 1. oxygen
    • 2. food
    • 3. clean water
    • 4. medicine
    • 5. ideas
    • 6. aesthetics
  42. heterotrophic
    take in nutrients and use asan energy source
  43. define autotrophic
    produce their own food
  44. why do animals behave?
    • - to maintain homeostasis ( ur body is in a good shape)
    • - in response to stimuli
    • - external
Card Set:
2012-05-10 11:13:44
biology veravilicia

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