npn 135

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Author:
whylove0001
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153283
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npn 135
Updated:
2012-09-27 15:12:31
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threats to body defenses
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  1. micro-organisms can be
    • -pathogenic- capable of producing disease
    • -non-pathogenic
  2. what are some organisms that cause infection?
    • -bacteria
    • -viruses
    • -fungi
    • -parasites
    • -prions
  3. name some properties of bacteria
    • -most common microbe (pathogen)
    • - transported via air, water, food, soil, inanimate objects, body tissue, and fluid
    • -hundred of different species (staph, strept, E. coli.)
    • -aerobic- requiring the presence of air or free of oxygen for life
    • -anaerobic- living in the absence of air free of oxygenw
  4. name some properties of rickettsiae
    • -resemble bacteria, but different
    • -must be inside living cells to reproduce
    • - vectors (transmit) include infected
  5. what is a disease
    an alteration in normal tissue function having characteristic signs and symptoms
  6. an infection is
    invasion of body tissues by pathogenic organisms that multiply and cause injury and inflammatory response
  7. what is some symptoms of a localized infection?
    • -redness
    • -pain
    • -warmth
    • -swelling
    • -pus may appear in a specific part (the site)
  8. what are some symptoms is a generalized infection?
    • -redness
    • -pain
    • -swelling
    • -warmth
    • -fever
    • -malaise
    • -anorexia
    • -prostration (extreme physical weakness or exhaustion)
  9. ______ is required for bacterial infection
    antibiotics
  10. name the different types of infection
    • -colonization
    • -local
    • -systemic
    • -bactermia
    • -septicemia
    • -acute
    • -chronic
    • -latent
    • -primary
    • -secondary
    • -community acquired
    • -nosocomial
  11. what is a colonization infection
    • -groups of living micro-organisms become resident flora
    • -resident flora grow and multiply, but do not cause infection
    • -infection develops when invades other parts of the body

    -EX... E.coli resident flora in intestines, but if invades urinary tract=UTI
  12. what is a local infection
    -limited to an area of body where pathogens remain

    -can develop into systemic infection if not treated
  13. septicemia
    symptomatic systemic infection spread through the blood and can affect blood flow to vital organs
  14. a primary infection
    -the first infection occuring in client
  15. a secondary infection
    infection following a primary infection that occurs frequently in compromised clients
  16. what is a systemic infection?
    • -pathogens invade lymph or blood and spread throughout the body
    • -treated with IV antibiotics
  17. an acute infection
    -infection that appers suddenly and short in duration
  18. a chronic infection is
    -slow onset, lasting for weeks, months, or years
  19. A latent infection is
    -cause no symptoms for long periods of time, even decades
  20. a community acquired infection is
    -acquired in day to day contact with public

    -EX...colds, Flu, Meningitis, STD's
  21. what is a nosocomial infection?
    -hospital acquired, not present when client is admitted
  22. what is a endogenous source of nosocomial infection
    • -orginates from client's normal flora and some form of treatment that cause normal harmless bacteria to multiply=
    • infection

    example: antibotics destroy normal flora causes yeast infection
  23. what is a exogenous source of nosocomial infection
    pathogens inquired from hospital enviroment
  24. E.Coli
    • -common pathogen causing UTI
    • -normally lives in intestines
    • -transmitted via unwashed hands, contaminated food and water, improper cleansing
  25. what are some factors contributing to nosocomial infections
    • -iatrogenic: due to medical therapy
    • EX... catheterizations. IV's

    -compromised host: client's normal defense have been lowered by surgery or illness

    -insufficient handwashing: by personnel
  26. what are some common pathogens causing nosocomial infections?
    • -escherichia coli (E.Coli)
    • -staphylococcus Aureus (Staph)
    • -pseudomonas aeruginosa
  27. what are some factors of staphylococcus aureus
    -usually lives in nose and on skin of healthy people

    -common cause of nosocomial surgical wound infection and nosocomial septicemia
  28. what is some factors of pseudomonas?
    -common pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia

    -found around sinks, water, irrigation solution, and nebulizers on respiratory equipment in health care settings

    -also found in soil
  29. name some drug resistant organisms
    • -Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
    • -Methicillin-Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA)
    • -C Diff
  30. Name some properties of VRE
    -enterococci normal flora in GI and female genital tracts

    -transmitted by direct or indirect contant
  31. what is some methods to identify pathogens
    • -gram staining
    • -culture and sensitvity (C&S)
    • -serum Antibody test
    • -CBC with differential
    • -Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  32. what is some factors of culture & sensitivity
    • -referred to as C&S
    • -organisms in specimen grown on lab plate and identified in 24-48 hours
    • -organisms exposed to many different antibiotics to determine which is most effective for treatment (sensitivity)
    • -doctor will then Rx appropriate antibiotics
  33. what is the different leukocytes and levels a CBC with Diff identify
    • -neutrophils
    • -eosinophils
    • -basophils
    • -monocytes
    • -lymphocytes
  34. a _______ is obtained when infectious disease is suspected
    CBC with Diff
  35. Gram staining is
    a method of staining bacteria

    -useful in bacterial taxonomy, identification and indicating fundemental differences in cell wall structure
  36. Gram positive organisms stain
    purple/ black
  37. Gram negative bacteria stain
    pink
  38. what are some factors of serum antibody test
    • -measure reaction to a certain antigen
    • -positive result does not always mean active infection is present
    • -may mean there has been exposure to the antigen
    • -not as accurate as a culture
  39. what are some factors of neutrophils
    • -most numerous circulating WBCs
    • -body 1st line of defense in acute infection
    • -focuses on bacteria and small particle
    • -increased in acute, severe inflammation/ infection
    • -phagocytize pathogen
    • -respond more quickly to the inflammatory and tissue injury sites than other WBCs
  40. what are some factors of eosinphils
    • -increased in allergic and parasitic conditions
    • -limited role in phagocytosis
  41. what are some factors in basophils
    • -increased in the healing process
    • -respond to inflammation from injury by releasing histamine and heparin granules as part of the inflammation response
  42. what are some factors of lymphoctyes
    • -play a major role in immune responses as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
    • -increased lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) occurs in chronic and viral infections
    • -severe lymphocytosis commonly caused by chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    • -functions include antigen recognition and antibody production
  43. what is some factors in monocytes
    • -body's 2nd line of defense against bacterial infections and foreign substances
    • -stronger than neutrophils and can ingest larger particle of debris
    • -respond late during acute phase of infection and continue to function during chronic phase of phagocytosis
    • -help clean up damaged or injured tissue
    • -increased in some protozoa and rickettsial infection, TB, leukemia
  44. what are some factors of Erythocyte Sedimentation Rate
    • -also called ESR or Sed Rate
    • -early screening test for inflammation
    • -not a definite test for infection
    • -RBCs become heavier in infection and settle to bottom of test tube
    • -the faster they settle, the greater the inflammation
  45. infection occurs when the
    chain of infection stays intact
  46. what is the six links in the chain of infection
    • -infectious/causative agent
    • -reservoir/source
    • -portal of exit
    • -mode of transmission
    • -portal of entry
    • -suscepitible host
  47. the infectious / causative agent is
    -the organism responsible for causing infection
  48. the reservior/source is
    -place where pathogens live, multiply and reproduce

    • can be:
    • animate
    • inanimate
  49. the portal of exit is
    -the way the infectious agent leaves the reservoir/ source

    • EX...
    • -respiratory tract
    • -skin
    • -GI tract
    • -GU tract
    • -open lesions
    • -placenta
  50. the mode of transmission is
    -a method in which microbe moves or is carried from one place to another

    • -Routes and Means= Direct
    •                                   Indirect
    •                                   Airborne
  51. what are some factors about the direct method of transmission
    -occurs via touching, biting, kissing, sexual contact

    -also via droplet spray into eyes or on mm while sneezing, coughing, spitting, singing, or even talking

    -spread is limited to 3 feet or less
  52. what are some examples of direct method of transmission and what are some methods to protect self and client
    • -examples:
    • -Flu
    • -scabies
    • -impetigo
    • -conjunctivitis
    • -lice
    • -STDs

    -methods to protect self and client: HANDWASHING, PPE (gloves, masks, googles, shoe covers) and aseptic technique
  53. what is the indirect method of transmission "vehicle-borne"
    -spread of infectious organism by coming in contact with contaminated objects (toys, soiled bedding, wound dressing, surgical instruments, water, food, blood, tissues, serum and organ)
  54. what are some examples of indirect method of transmission "vehicle-borne" and what are some methods to protect self and client
    • -examples:
    • -conjunctivitis
    • -hepatitis
    • -HIV
    • methods to protect self and client : HANDWASHING, thorough cleaning of client's environment, providing clean water and food supplies.
  55. what is the indirect method of transmission "vector-borne"
    • -spread by living sources other than human
    • (insect, flea, mouse)
    • examples:
    • -malaria
    • -plague
    • -lyme disease
  56. what is the portal of entry
    -openings that allows microbes to enter host
  57. what are some routes of entry
    • -respiratory tract
    • -GI tract
    • -GU tract
    • -broken skin
    • -placenta
    • -MM
    • -tubes, IV sites, catheters
  58. a susceptible host is considered
    -a person who can not resist microbes invading body, multiplying and resulting in infection
  59. what is a compromised host
    -one who is at a very high risk because body defenses are already low due to illness or surgery and are not able to overcome invasion of pathogens
  60. what is the stages of an infection
    • -incubation
    • -prodromal
    • -illness
    • -decline
    • -convalescence
  61. what is the incubation stage of an infection
    • -1st stage of an infection
    • -interval between entrance of pathogen and apperance of symptoms
    • -person does not suspect has been infected, but can infect others
  62. what is some examples of the incubation stage of infection and how long does this stage last
    • -chicken pox 2-3 wks
    • -common cold 1-2 days
    • -flu 1-3 days
    • -this stage may last as long as months or years
  63. what is the prodromal stage of an infection
    • -2nd stage of an infection
    • -interval from onset of nonspecific Sx (malaise, fatigue, low grade fever) to more specific Sx
    • -microbes are growing and multiplying
    • -person is more capable of spreading infection to other in this stage
    • -not present in all infections
  64. what is the illness stage in infection
    • -3rd stage of an infection
    • -present when obvious signs and Sx specific to type of infection
    • -this stage may end in death if person's immune defenses or medical treatment is ineffective
  65. what is the decline stage of infection
    • -4th stage of infection
    • -immune defenses and medical treatment reduce the number of pathogens
    • -signs and Sx of infection begin to diminish
  66. what is the convalescence stage of an infection
    • -5th stage of an infection
    • -acute Sx disappear
    • -person returns to health
    • -may take a day or 2
    • -if severe infection may take a year or longer
  67. what is the most contagious stage of infection?
    prodromal stage
  68. when a person maintains wellness, their _______ are usually strong enough to fight off disease or microbes causing infection
    body defenses
  69. the body defenses are classified as
    • -non-specific
    • -specific
  70. what is non-specific body defenses
    •  -1st line of defense (anatomic response)
    • intact skin and MM


    • -2nd line of non-specific defense -inflammatory response
    • 2 processes in inflammatory process
    • -phagocytois
    • -inflammation
  71. what is phagocytosis
    -a process in inflammatory process

    -helps rid the body of invading microbes and debris via WBCs (leukocytes)
  72. what is inflammation
    -body's reaction to injury or infection

    -is protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to tissue in affected areas

    -not the same as infection
  73. what is some cause of inflammation
    • -physical agents: excess sun, xrays, heat, cold
    • -chemical stimuli: insect venom, gastric acid and poisons
    • -biologic agents: bacteria and viruses
  74. what are the 3 stages of the inflammatory response
    • -vascular response
    • -inflammatory exudate
    • -phagocytosis and purulent exudate
  75. what is the vascular stage of the inflammatory response
    • -1st stage in the inflammatory response
    • -local vasodilation occurs resulting in increased blood flow to the injured area
    • -the increased blood flow presents as redness and warmth at the injured site
    • -more plasma is brought to the area to nourish tissue and carries waste and debris away
  76. what is the third stage of the inflammatory response
    3RD Stage = PHAGOCYTOSIS & PURULENT EXUDATE

    • -Leukocytes destroy pathogenic organisms & their toxins
    • -Purulent exudate may form that contains protein, cellular debris & dead leukocytes
  77. what is the inflammatory exudate stage of the inflammatory response
    • -2nd stage in the inflammatory response
    • -permeability of blood vessels increased
    • -allows plasma to move out of the capillaries and into the tissues
    • -swelling occurs resulting in pain and pressure on nearby nerve endings
  78. what are signs and symptoms of inflammation
    • -redness
    • -warmth
    • -edema
    • -pain
    • -possible purulent drainage if infection is present
  79. what is specific defenses
    • -involves the immune system response
    • -main function of immune system is to identify and eliminate threatening foreign elements from the body

    • -antigens
    • -antibody/ immunoglobulins
    • -immunity
  80. what is antigens
    -a specific defense, foreign substances in body, referred to as the invaders (rubella virus)
  81. what is antibody/immunoglobulin
    -a specific defense, protective substances body produces to counteract antigens
  82. what are the types of immunity
    -innate (natural)

    -acquired (active or passive)
  83. what is the innate (natural) type of immunity
    -human cells uniniqueness makes us naturally immune to certain disease
  84. what is acquired active immunity
    active- body produce antibodies in response to an antigen (long)

    • natural- antibodies produced in response to active infection (lifelong)
    • artifical- vaccines given to stimulate antibodies production (many years, booster)
  85. what is acquired passive immunity
    • Passive: 
    • antibodies produced by another source (short)  

    • natural: 
    • antibodies from an immune mother via placenta/colostrum to   baby (6mos.- 1 yr.)  
    • artificial:
    • injection of immune serum (immunoglobulin) from animal or another human after exposure   (2-3 wks)
  86. what is antibody-mediated defenses
    Humoral (circulating) immunity

    • -Acts directly on antigens
    • -B cells are involved in
    • -B cells grow to maturity in the bone marrow
    • -In presence of antigen, macrophages & T helper cells stimulate the B cells to produce antibodies (immunoglobulins, IgM)
    • -Antibodies  bind to the target antigens & destroy them
  87. what is immunoglobulin IgM
    • IgM:
    •  produced when antigen encountered         for 1st time (can’t pass thru placenta)
  88. what is immunoglobulin IgG
    • IgG: 
    • -most common immunoglobulin
    • –Body recognizes antigen, special B memory cells form that remember the antigen
    • –Small & can pass thru placenta
    • –Infants are born with passive immunity & is maintained as long as the IgG molecule exists
  89. what is immunoglobulin IgE
    • IgE:
    • -primarily responsible for allergic response
  90. what is immunoglobulin IgA
    • IgA:
    • -MM secrete IgA around body openings to provide protection to these vulnerable portals of entry
  91. what is immunoglobulin IgD
    • IgD: 
    • -antibodies form on surface of B cells trapping the pathogen & preventing it from multiplying & causing disease
  92. what is cell mediated immunity
    aka cellular immunity

    • -Does not involve production of antibodies
    • -Effective against intracellular pathogens
    • -Occurs through T cell system
    • -Aimed at intracellular pathogens such as cancers, viruses, fungi
    • -When exposed to antigens, lymphoid tissue releases activated T cells into lymph system which passes into general circulation
    • -With loss cellular immunity, one is defenseless against most viral, fungal & bacterial infections
  93. who would you remove PPE
    • -Gloves 1st (most soiled)
    • -If gown tied at waist in front, untie before taking off gloves
    • -Remove mask by holding strings
    • -Remove gown (keeping soiled side rolled inward)
    • -Remove eyewear if not attached to mask

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