HDEV 180 Final Study Guide

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HDEV 180 Final Study Guide
2012-05-12 19:38:05
Manke Human Development

Manke Human Development Final
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  1. 4 Theoretical framworks
    • Biological-Maturation
    • Environment-Learning
    • Constructivist
    • Cultural-Context
  2. Biological-Maturation
    • Most simplistic
    • Development is due to genes
    • Genetic makeup ("It's hereditary")
    • Relative contributions of nature (genes) and nurture (environment)
    • You are not active, you are passive
  3. Environment-Learning
    • All about nurture (environment: family, school, friends, video games)
    • Passive: not choosing your envronment, undirectional
    • Modeling
    • Observation
    • Shaping
    • Reward
    • Punishment
  4. Constructivist
    • Considering both biology and environment
    • Adding
    • Multiplicative - 2 small things into large issue
    • Active
  5. Cultural-Context
    • Genes in biology, environment, and constructivism
    • Context and content that is larger in cultural and historical
    • Most complicated
  6. What are Baumrind's Parenting Styles?
    • Authoritative
    • Authoritarian
    • Indulgent/Permissive
    • Neglectful
  7. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritative (Definition)
    High on both responsiveness and demandingness
  8. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritative (Child Effects)
    • Psychologically well-adjusted
    • Self confidence, not depressed
    • More responsible
    • More successful in school
    • Better peer relationships
    • Self-control
  9. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritative (Limitations)
    • Parents are warm but firm
    • Set standards that are consistent with the child's developmental level
    • Deal with children with rational issue-oriented manner
    • Parents respect child's independent decisions (autonomy)
    • Consistent with rules
    • Parents who do not "baby" their children
  10. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritarian (Definition)
    Low on responsiveness and high on demandingness
  11. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritarian (Child Effects)
    • More dependent
    • More passive
    • Less socially skilled
    • Less confidence
  12. Baumrind's parenting styles: Authoritarian (Limitations)
    • Not warm and accepting but lots of rules
    • Expectations are developmentally inappropriate
    • Favor punitive disciplinary measures (spanking)
    • Not nurturing (firm control, little support)
  13. Baumrind's parenting styles: Indulgent/Permissive (Definition)
    High on responsiveness and low on demandingness
  14. Baumrind's parenting styles: Indulgent/Permissive (Child Effects)
    • Less mature
    • Irresponsible
    • More conforming to peers (give into peer pressure)
  15. Baumrind's parenting styles: Indulgent/Permissive (Limitations)
    • Passive parents (accept children but passive in ways of discipline)
    • Give children freedom to do as they wish
    • Find excuses for bad behavior
  16. Baumrind's parenting styles: Neglectful (Definition)
    Low on both responsiveness and demandingness
  17. Baumrind's parenting styles: Neglectful (Child Effects)
    • Impulsive (act without thinking)
    • More likely to be involved with delinwuent behavior (drugs, drinking)
  18. Baumrind's parenting styles: Neglectful (Limitations)
    • Parents minimize time and energy with child
    • Show very little interest maybe even ignore
  19. Rodriquez et. al study (2009)—Latino parents/ protective parenting, methods, and results
    • Methods
    • Spanish speaking Latino failies with a child between 4 and 9 years old
    • At least one parent was a first generation immigrant

    • Results
    • Majority of parents (61%) classified as PROTECTIVE
    • 31% of parents classified as AUTHORITATIVE
    • No differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers
    • No statistically significant differences between parenting styles used with sons vs. daughter, yet some evidence suggest that parents were lower on autonomy granting for daughters and high on demandingness on sons
  20. Balle-Jensen’s chapter on sleeping arrangements
    • Incest Avoidance
    • Sacred Couple
    • Autonomy
    • Female Chastity
    • Respect for hierarchy
    • Protection of the vulnerable
  21. Sacred couple
    co-habiting adults, emotional intimacy, interpersonal commitment, and sexual privacy require that they sleep together and alone
  22. Autonomy
    Highly valued members of the family such as children are fragile and should be encouraged to be alone at night so they can learn to be self-reliant and independent and to care for tehmselves
  23. Protection of the vulnerable
    Highly valued members of the family such as children are needy and fragile and should not be left alone at night
  24. Respect for hierarchy
    Among sexually mature males, social superiority is expressed through deference and distance.
  25. Female Chastity
    Unmarried sexualized women to be chaste, young unmarried girls are constantly chaperoned
  26. Incest Avoidance
    Sexualized unmarried males and females must not have sex with each other
  27. Spanking (Theories)
    • Pro-Corporal Punishment: "Spare the rod and spoil the child"
    • Have been spanked before
    • Agree that spanking is the best punishment

    • Anti-Corporal Punishment (Environment-Learning): "Violence begets violence"
    • "Spanking is just hitting, taching children that violence is okay"
    • Teaches agression, hitting is better than conflict resolution
    • Modeling, observation, punishment, reward

    • Conditional Corporal Punishment (Cultual Context): "Negative effects of spanking are not direct or universal - they are cultural specific"
    • Depends on culture; depends on context
  28. Spanking (Study of African American and White families)
    • White Families: The more you spank, the more problems your kids will have later on
    • African-American Families: No relationship between spanking and child's behavior problems
  29. Spanking (Goodness of Fit)
    • More normative in African-American families (typical - less negative effect)
    • African American families deliver spanking in a much more loving context
    • White families frequently inconsistent (Negative effects when spanked out of frustration)
  30. Goodness of Fit
    The match between parenting practices and the demands of the surrounding environment
  31. Neighborhood as SITE
    • Most simplistic to define neighborhood
    • Geographical location
    • Says nothing about what the environment or people are like
    • Limiting
    • Neglects multiplicity of neighborhoods
  32. Neighborhood as PERCEPTION
    • Collect data without talking to people
    • Collecct data from people who actually live there
    • Getting people to tell you how they feel about their neighborhood
    • Evaluate their own personal value of risk or quality of resources
  33. Neighborhood as SOCIAL NETWORK
    • Interpersonal linkages in a neighborhood
    • Nowadays, people are more likely to keep to themselves
    • Who in your neighborhood would you trust?
  34. Houston study of neighborhood effects (types of data)
    • Census data
    • Crime data
    • First-hand assessments (actually going to the neighborhood with survey, catalogue what you saw)
  35. Houston study of neighborhood effects (conclusions)
    • More commercial activity was related to greater behavior problems
    • Temptation to shoplift
    • More violent crime was related to less social competence (make friends)
    • Trust level is not there
    • Parents won't let you out
  36. Gangs (prevalence)
    • There are 1 million gang members and 20,000 active gangs in the US
    • Reflect 30% increase in gang membership over the last 10 years
  37. Gangs (functions)
    • Agents of Socialization
    • Protector
    • Entertainment provider
    • Economic provider
  38. Gangs: Agents of Socialization
    • 1. One's Place in Larger Society
    • Gangs help you realize what your position is (how your neighborhood is percieved)
    • Recognizing where you fit in heirarchy

    • 2. Gender Stratification
    • Men are providers, leaders, protectors, strong
    • Women serve the men sexually

    • 3. Social Stratification
    • Knowing where you are between groups
    • Understanding where gang is allowed to go
    • How you are identified in neighborhood

    • 4. Ethnic Stratification
    • Not fating outside of ethnic group

    • 5. Violence and Pain
    • Defining things as nonagressive
    • Never show vulnerability
  39. Gangs (Boyle Heights study)
    • Study:
    • Explore whther or not students' attitudes about gangs and exposure ti gang members predicts academic achievement (and failure) over the transition from middle to high school

    • Results:
    • Adolescents with more positive attitudes towards gangs in the 8th grade earned lower grades in the 9th grade (r=-.49)
    • Attitudes towards gangs are a better predictor of grades than mere exposure to gangs
  40. School issues (school size)
    • Argues that there should be specific age groups for each level of schooling
    • Which is better for kids? Are smaller schools better than larger schools?
    • Students of larger schools have a harder time making sports teams because there are the same select spots on a sports team in a large school as well as a small school
    • More spectators than athletes
  41. School issues (class size)
    • Classrooms are getting larger
    • Classes used to be 20 or so, and are now 30+ students per classroom
  42. School issues (rigor vs. relevance)
    • Rigor: Science and math
    • Relevance: History, government, social studies
  43. School issues (graduation rates)
    • 40% of young adults in 2010 had earned at last an associate's degree
    • 7,200 students drop out every day
  44. Pang et. al article— model minority myth
    The idea that Asian American and Pacific Islander students achieve academically because they have successfully assimilated into society and that racism is no longer an obstacle to their social mobility
  45. Pang et. al article— results of the study
    • AAIP students did better in math but worse in reading as compared to White students
    • In Reading: Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students scored higher than white students. Samoan and Laotian students did much wose than White students
    • In Math: Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Asian Indian students scored higher than White students. Samoan and Laotian students did much worse than White students
  46. Peer homophily
    • Friends tend to be similar in terms of:
    • sex
    • ethnicity
    • age
    • income
    • religious views
    • academic performance
    • political views
    • interests
    • personality

    • Niche picking: looking for people who are similar to you
    • Socialization: become more similar over time
  47. Types of peers
    • Popular Children (12%)
    • Rejected Children (12%)
    • Controversial Children (6%)
    • Neglected Children (6%)
    • Average Children (60%)
  48. Types of peers: Popular Children
    Receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations (12%)

    • Skilled at making friends (initiating interactions)
    • Recognize own emotions and feelings of other people
    • Cooperative and friendly kids
  49. Types of peers: Rejected Children
    Receive few positive nominations and many negative nominations (12%)

    • Hard to take someone else's perspective
    • Tendency to perceive ambiguous situation as negative
    • Aggressive and troublemakers
    • Do more poorly in school
    • Being rejected early on predict: truancy, dropping out of school
  50. Types of peers: Controversial Children
    Receive many positive and negative nominations (6%)

    • Agressive and disruptive
    • Helpful and cooperative
  51. Types of peers: Neglected Children
    Receive few positive or negative nominations (6%)

    • Temporary
    • Chronically neglected: depressed and lack social skills
  52. Types of peers: Average Children
    Receive some positive nominations and some negative nominations (60%)

    • Moderately social
    • Don't stand out in a group
  53. Movie themes
    Media affects how women portray themselves

    Commercialization attracts children to convince parents to purchase more consumer products
  54. Article on physical attractiveness and mating rivalry (Study and subjects)
    Are female friends in self-perceived of attractiveness and are these perceptions related to mating rivalry?

    • 44 pairs of female friends
    • Heterosexual
    • 19 years of age
    • Caucasian
    • 70% single (not in a committed relationship)
  55. Article on physical attractiveness and mating rivalry (Items of mating rivalry)
    • It is harder to meet guys when she is around
    • She flirts with guys I am interested in
    • I feel undesirable when she is around
    • I feel in competition with her for attention from members of the opposite sex
    • I feel unattractive in comparison to her
  56. Article on physical attractiveness and mating rivalry (Findings)
    • Female friends are similar in terms of physical attractiveness
    • Self and researcher ratings of attractiveness related - if you saw yourself as more attractive than your friends, the judges were likely to see you as more
    • Women who perceive themselves as less attractive than their female friend perceive more

    *Mating rivalry is not related to friendship closeness or the likelihood of the friendship lasting