Speech Science Final

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Speech Science Final
2012-05-14 06:30:52
speech vowel vocal tract

HCOM 350
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  1. Vocal Tract: Variation in the human vocal tract by moving and positioning the articulators.
    Describe length/shape of the following:

    Tongue Elevation:
    Tongue Fronting:
    Tongue Depression:
    Lip Protrusion:
    Larynx Lowering:
    • Tongue Elevation: enlargement of the pharyngeal resonating cavity
    • Tongue Fronting: reduction of the oral resonating cavity
    • Tongue Depression: reduction of the pharyngeal resonating cavity
    • Lip protrusion: lengthening of both the oral cavity and the entire vocal tract
    • Larynx Lowering: lengthening of both the pharyngeal cavity and the entire vocal tract
  2. Sound source for vowels
    vocal fold vibration
  3. What is the Source-filter Theory?
    The generation of a sound source (sound wave), which is then shaped or filtered by the resonant properties of the vocal tract.

    Most of the filtering of a source spectrum is carried out by that part of the vocal tract anterior to the sound source. In the case of a glottal source, the filter is the entire supra-glottal vocal tract. The vocal tract filter always includes some part of the oral cavity and can also include the nasal cavity (depending upon whether the velum is open or closed).
  4. What does the Blue graph represent?

  5. What does a waveform measure?
    Time (X) and Amplitude (Y)
  6. What does the green graph represent?

  7. What does a Spectrum measure?
    Amplitudes (Y) of frequency (X) components at a point in time
  8. What does this graph represent?

  9. What does a Spectrogram measure?
    Time (X), Frequency (Y), and amplitude (light/dark bands)
  10. What vowel is this?

  11. What vowel is this?

  12. What vowel is this?

  13. Male or Female?

  14. Male or Female?

  15. Vowel chart

    • /i/: Maximum oral constriction
    • /a/: Maximum pharyngeal constriction
    • /ɔ, o, u/: Lip protrusion lowers resonances
  16. Model of Vocal Tract /i/

  17. Model of Vocal Tract /a/

  18. Model of vocal tract /u/

  19. F1 is correlated with vowel...
  20. F2 is correlated with vowel...
  21. High vowels = (Height) F?
    Low F1

    Enlargement of the pharyngeal resonating cavity
  22. Low vowels = (Height) F?
    High F1

    Reduction of the pharyngeal resonating cavity
  23. Front vowels = (Height) F?
    High F2

    Reduction of the oral resonating cavity
  24. Back vowels = (Height) F?
    Low F2

    Enlargement of the oral resonating cavity
  25. This model represents which spectrum of the Sound Source Model?
    Source Function

    Glottal pulses consisting of fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Harmonics tend to diminish in intensity as they increase in frequency.
  26. This model represents which spectrum of the Sound Source Model?
    Transfer Function

    Resonances of the acoustic tube (17cm). These are the frequencies at which the air in a tract of that shape and length would vibrate maximally in response to another complex sound.
  27. This model represents which spectrum of the Sound Source Model?


    The product of Source and Transfer Functions. The glottal source with its many harmonics (Source Function) is filtered according to the frequency response of the vocal tract filter (transfer function). Harmonics of the glottal sound wave that are at or near the spectral peaks of the transfer function of the vocal tract are resonated and those distant from the resonant frequencies of the tract lose energy and are greatly attenuated. The sound at the end of the tract (lips) has same harmonics as the sound source but amplitudes of harmonics have been modified.
  28. What are the sound sources of speech?
    • Voiced Source
    • Turbulent Source
    • Transient Source
    • Combined Sources
  29. Attributes of Voiced Sound Sources of Speech.
    • Vocal fold vibration
    • Vowels, Consonants (nasals, glides, liquids) <- Sonorants
  30. Attributes of Turbulent Sound Sources of Speech.
    • Turbulent airflow through narrow constriction in the vocal tract
    • Aperiodic, hissing quality
    • Fricatives (e.g. /f, s, ʃ, θ, h/)
  31. Attributes of Transient Sound Sources of Speech.
    • Abrupt changes in airflow due to a release of air pressure buit-up behind a constriction in the vocal tract.
    • Aperiodic
    • Stops (/p, t, k/)
  32. Attributes of Combined Sound Sources of Speech:
    Turbulent + Transient = ?
    VL Affricates (e.g. /t ʃ/)
  33. Attributes of Combined Sound Sources of Speech:
    Voiced + Turbulent = ?
    V Fricatives (e.g. /v, ð, z, ʒ/)
  34. Attributes of Combined Sound Sources of Speech:
    Voiced + Transient = ?
    V Stops (e.g. /b, d, g/)
  35. Attributes of Combined Sound Sources of Speech:
    Voiced + Turbulent + Transient = ?
    V Affricate (e.g. /dʒ/)
  36. Semivowels: Glides and Liquids
    • Resonant (or sonorant) consonants
    • Similar articulations and acoustic features as vowels
    • Minimum constrictions in the vocal tract
    • Formant structures similar to vowels and dipthongs
    • Transitions articulated quicker than vowels and dipthongs (shorter acoustic duration)
  37. Semivowels: Glides
    • Occur only before a vocalic nuclei
    • Palatal glide /j/ - produced at a position close to that for /i/
    • Glide /w/ - produced at a position close to that for /u/ and has bilabial protrusion + lingua-palatal approximation
  38. Figure 6.1

    aja iji
    awa iwi
  39. Semivowels: Liquids
    • Can function as syllable cuclei (syllabic consonant)
    • Lateral /l/ vs Retroflex /r/
    • F3 falling for /r/ vs no significant change for /l/
  40. Figure 6.2

    ara iri
    ala ili
  41. Stop Consonants: Name the phases and the extra
    • Closing Phase
    • Closure Phase
    • Release Phase
    • Glottal Stop
  42. Stop Consonants:
    Closing Phase
    • The velopharyngeal closure
    • An occlusion formed by lips or tongue withing the oral cavity
  43. Stop Consonants:
    Closure Phase
    holding the air in the vocal tract and increased intraoral pressure
  44. Stop Consonants:
    Release Phase
    • Orally released with a tranient burst of noise
    • by lowering the velum- "nasal release" when a stop is followed by a homorganic nasal (e.g. "hidden")
    • Not always released
  45. Stop Consonants:
    Glottal Stop /ʔ/
    • Articulated at the glottis
    • Voiceless!!
  46. What are the acoustic features of Stop production?
    • Silent gap
    • Noise burst
    • Rise/Fall time
    • Formant Transition
  47. Stop- Acoustic Features:
    "Silent Gap" for stop closure period
    in case of voiced stops (/b. d. g/), the presence of a low-intensity harmonic, the f0
  48. Stop- Acoustic Features:
    Noise Burst
    • A vertical spike following the silent gap
    • More prominent for voiceless stops (/p, t, k/)
    • Very brief (10 - 35ms)
    • A broad range of frequencies with varying intensity
    • The frequencies with greatest intensity are related to place of articulation
  49. Stop- Acoustic Features:
    Rise/Fall Time
    • Maximum intensity to syllable initial (rise)
    • Minimum intensity for syllable final (fall)
  50. Stop- Acoustic Features:
    Formant transition
    • F1 rises rapidly after the relase of initial stops and falls rapidly begore completion of the closure for the final stops
    • Variation in the degree of rise or fall depending on the neighboring sounds (e.g. /i/ vs /a/)