Toxins & Antidotes

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Author:
USUHS14
ID:
153358
Filename:
Toxins & Antidotes
Updated:
2012-05-10 20:09:06
Tags:
pharmacology toxins antidotes
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Description:
A list of toxins and their antidotes/treatment...
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  1. Acetaminophen
    N-acetylcysteine (replenishes glutathione)
  2. Salicylates
    bicarbonate NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine); dialysis
  3. Amphetamines
    ammonium chloride NH4Cl (acidify urine)

    *Remember, amphetamines are basic!
  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and/or organophosphates
    Atropine, Pralidoxime (2-PAM)
  5. Antimuscarinic, anticholinergic agents
    Physostigmine salicylate
  6. Beta-blockers
    Glucagon (to increase inotropy and chronotropy)
  7. Digitalis
    Stop dig; normalize K+, Lidocaine, Anti-dig Fab fragments, Mg2+ (KLAM)
  8. Iron
    Deferoxamine
  9. Lead
    CaEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine (sounds like pencil lead)
  10. Mercury, Arsenic, Gold
    Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer
  11. Copper, Arsenic, Gold
    Penicillamine
  12. Cyanide
    Nitrite, hydroxocobalamin, thiosulfate
  13. Methemoglobin
    Methylene blue, Vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid)
  14. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    100% O2, hyperbaric O2
  15. Methanol (presents with blindness)
    Ethylene glycol (nephrotoxic)
    Fomepizole > ethanol, dialysis
  16. Opioids
    Naloxone/Naltrexone
  17. Benzodiazepines
    Flumazenil
  18. TCAs
    NaHCO3 (plasma alkalinization)... also treat for seizures and cardiac arrythmias
  19. Heparin
    Protamine
  20. Warfarin
    Vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma (to replace clotting factors)
  21. tPA, streptokinase, urokinase
    Aminocaproic acid
  22. Theophylline
    Beta-blocker

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